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Class VII - Social: Rulers and Buildings
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called?
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Q) Between the 7th and 10th centuries, architects started adding more?
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Q) Arches, domes and limestone mortar were used extensively in the buildings after?
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Q) Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i kuhna was called?
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Q) The city of Vijayanagara was developed by the?
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Q) Mughal emperors were personally interested in?
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Q) Shah Jahan adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the?
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Q) Which Century the Temple Construction?
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Q) The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches,The roof too used this principle and was converted into vaults and domes. This architectural form is called?
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Q) Which famous person was described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens,These gardens were called chahar baghs, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into 4-quarters?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Why were Temples Destroyed?
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Q) Explain briefly about Gardens, Tombs and Forts?
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Q) Explain briefly about Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks?
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Q) Explain briefly about Imperial Style of the Vijayanagara Period?
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Q) Explain briefly about Engineering Skills and Construction?
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Q) Write a short noteon Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain in detail about Engineering Skills and Construction?
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Q) Explain in detail about Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century?
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Q) Explain in detail about the new way of building?
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Q) Explain in detail about Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks?
A)   Show/hide Answer

Q) Explain in detail about Imperial Style of the Vijayanagara Period?
A)   Show/hide Answer

Q) Explain in detail about Gardens, Tombs and Forts?
A)   Show/hide Answer

Q) Explain the Imperial Style of the Vijayanagara Period?
A)   Show/hide Answer

Q) Explain the A new way of building?
A)   Show/hide Answer

Q) Explain the Engineering Skills and Construction?
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Rulers and Buildings
Engineering Skills and Construction
  • Between the 7th and 10th centuries, architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings.
  • Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called 'trabeate' or 'corbelled'.
  • Between the 8th and 13th centuries, the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and buildings attached to large stepped-wells.

Construction skills
Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century
  • The Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh 999 AD by King Dhangadeva.
  • An ornamented gateway led to an entrance and the main hall (mahamandapa) where dances were performed.
  • The image of the chief deity was kept in the main shrine The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara amongst the temples of its time.
  • The architects built an inclined path to the top of the temple, placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all the way to the top.
  • The path started more than four kilometres away so that it would not be too steep.
  • The path was dismantled after the temple was constructed.

Temple construction in eleventh century
A new way of building
  1. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. The roof too used this principle and was converted into vaults and domes. This architectural form is called 'arcuate'.
  2. Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction. This was very high quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier and faster. Arches, domes and limestone mortar were used extensively in the buildings after 1190 AD.

Domes
Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks
  • Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. They were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patrons.
  • The largest temples were all constructed by kings. The other, lesser deities in the temple were gods and goddesses of the allies and subordinates of the ruler.
  • The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.
  • The kings and nobles endowed the temples with land, gold and jewels so that the worship of the gods could be carried out on a grand scale. They collected taxes from the villages, lent money on interest to traders, organised fairs and markets to which buyers and sellers of goods came. These temples thus became centres of political and economic power.
  • Muslim Sultans and Badshahs did not claim to be incarnations of god but Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the 'Shadow of God'. Constructing places of worship provided rulers with the chance to proclaim their close relationship with God, especially important in an age of rapid political change.
  • Rulers also offered patronage to the learned and pious, and tried to transform their capitals and cities into great cultural centres that brought fame to their rules and realm.
  • Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i kuhna. It was called the hauz-i Sultani or the 'King's Reservoir'. Rulers often constructed tanks and reservoirs ' big and small ' for use by ordinary people.

Buildings
Why were Temples Destroyed?
  • In the political culture of the Middle Ages, most rulers displayed their political, might and military success by attacking and looting the places of worship of the defeated rulers.
  • When the Chola king Rajendra I built a Shiva temple in his capital, he filled it with prized statues seized from defeated rulers.

Destroyed temple
Imperial Style of the Vijayanagara Period
  • The city of Vijayanagara was developed by the Rayas to act as the imperial capital of the entire South India. Thus, they wanted it to reflect all the important imperial building traditions.
  • They built large temples for Sri Virupaksha, Ramachandra, Krishna and Vitthala using a style that had been developed by Chola and Pandya emperors of Tamil Nadu. They built large temples for Sri Virupaksha, Ramachandra, Krishna and Vitthala using a style that had been developed by Chola and Pandya emperors of Tamil Nadu.
  • Other distinctive features include mandapas or pavilions and long, pillared corridors that often ran around the shrines within the temple complex. While the Vijayanagara rulers built these temples on the Tamil Nadu model, they also built elaborate secular royal buildings, which were modelled on the style and techniques of the Sultanate architecture.
  • The famous Lotus Mahal (named so by British visitors), Queen's Bath and the Elephant Stables are examples of this style.

Vijaynagara
Gardens, Tombs and Forts
  • Mughal emperors were personally interested in literature, art and architecture.
  • In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called chahar baghs, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into 4-quarters.
  • Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful chahar baghs were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.
  • It was during Shah Jahan's reign that the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together in a grand harmonious synthesis. His reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activity especially in Agra and Delhi.
  • The ceremonial halls of public and private audience (diwan-i-khas or diwan-i-aam) were carefully planned. These courts were also described as chihil sutun or forty-pillared halls, placed within a large courtyard.
  • Shah Jahan adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign. These temples thus became centres of political and economic power.

Gardens, tombs and forts
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