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Industrial Revolution
Increasing Control of Traders

Textiles goods were produced by a large number of producers who were controlled by traders. There was no system as in a factory.Each trader engaged 20-25 craftspersons at each stage of production.later, the traders brought the craftspersons under one roof so that they could explain their requirements and organise the production more effectively.the trader took the product and sold it in the market. In this way, slowly, the control of the trader over the craftpersons increased. This phase is called 'proto-industrialisation' - a phase in which more and more people entered craft production, traders established control over the workers, and a large market for craft products developed across the world.



Increasing control of traders
Beginning of Industrial evolution - 1750-1850 AD

As the demand for cloth, and other handicrafts increased multiple times, many artisans wondered how they could increase the production to keep up with the demand.As a result of the pressure of trade and work, several people attempted to make such machines. Then came the long awaited invention - a machine which could spin a large amount of yarn in a short time.



Beginning of Industrial Revolution
James Watt's Invention

He made a machine which would run with the help of steam and would not need men or animals to drive it.Watt made the steam engine. As it was established, machines could run on steam, such machines were made for all kinds of work - spinning, weaving, making iron tools, driving vehicles and ships etc.



James Watt invention
Factory System of Production

All the facilities needed for production were owned and managed by individuals called capitalists. They invested money on workers, raw materials, machines, etc. and owned them.Production was now carried out in a place called 'factory'. Hundreds of workers were brought together to work in these large factories. Machines became important in place of minor tools and handlooms. They produced goods on a very large scale.



Factory system of production
The Experience of a 19th Century Child Worker

Major changes swept the industries with the coming of machines. Machines could be worked on by even unskilled persons. Thus, skilled artisans were no longer required. In their place, a large number of women and children were employed and made to work for meagre wages. Gradually, workers of factories and mines formed their own organisations to fight against the conditions of work. In the beginning, they demanded for 8 or 10 hours working day, higher wages, disallowing children under 14 years of age from being employed in mines or factories etc. Over time, the struggles and their conditions were improved.



Negetive side of industrialization
Sources of Energy and Industrial Development

Initially, industries depended upon the energy from coal and steam. Subsequently, they started using several other sources of energy like thermal and hydroelectricity, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and solar energy.



Sources of energy used by countries
Transport Revolution

In 1840s, John Loudon McAdam devised a method of laying the road using broken stones. This created a hard surface, which was an important advancement in the construction of roads.In the early 20th Century, an aircraft was developed by Wright Brothers and today, air transport is the fastest means of transport.The invention of steam engine boosted the shipping industry. It also reduced the cost of transportation to one third of the cost of road transport.



Transport revolution
Trade in Industrial Products

The factory owners began to sell products in other countries too. Machine made goods were cheap and durable. Hence, the demand for them increased all over the world. This gave a boost to the industries in England and other countries English traders purchased the raw materials from India and other countries and sold them to factory owners. Subsequently, the traders purchased the finished products and sold them in countries like India, America, etc.



Trade in Industrial products
Urbanisation and slums

Industrial revolution led to gradual shift of people from villages to towns. Industries and other urban activities gave livelihood to many people. As people moved to towns which were newly emerging, they settled down in makeshift houses and shelters which were cramped and had little sanitation or other facilities. Accidents, diseases and epidemics were common.



Urbanisation during industrial revolution
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