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Class VII - Social: Europe
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Land masses that are surrounded by the sea on three sides and connected to the mainland on the fourth side are called?
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Q) Mountains are not very high and they form the?
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Q) Most of the Europe countries experience snowfall in?
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Q) Since Winds blow from the west, these winds are called?
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Q) Summer is the season of?
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Q) The industrial revolution, started in England in the year?
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Q) Fruit cultivation is prominent in?
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Q) Which year the industrial revolution, started in England?
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Q) Which country experience more snowfall in winter,Their summers are not as warm as ours?
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Q) Which countries are on the shores of the Arctic Ocean?
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Q) In fact, Asia and Europe are one continuous landmass. This landmass is called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is Land and Agriculture?
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Q) What is Agricultural Revolution?
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Q) What is Modern Agriculture?
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Q) Explain briefly about Climate?
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Q) What are the Mountains, Plains and Rivers?
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Q) Which continent is on the east of these mountains?
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Q) Write a short noteon Industrial Revolution in Europe?
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Q) Write a short note on Distance from the Equator?
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Q) Write a short note on Atlantic Ocean?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain in detail about Industrial Revolution in Europe?
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Q) Explain in detail about Discovery of Sea Routes?
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Q) Explain in detail about distance from the Equator?
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Q) Explain briefly about the Atlantic Ocean?
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Q) Explain about Four Seasons?
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Q) Explain about Warm Ocean Currents?
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Q) Explain in detail about Location of Europe?
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Q) Explain in detail about Peninsulas, Islands and Bays?
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Q) Explain the Mountains, Plains and Rivers?
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Q) Explain the Mountains to the east of Europe?
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Europe

Location of Europe

There is an ocean to the north of Europe. This ocean is frozen for most of the year. This sea separates Europe in the north from Africa in the south. The name of this sea means 'middle of the world' or Mediterranean Sea.



Location of Europe
Mountains to the east of Europe

Mountains are not very high and they form the eastern boundary of Europe. Asia is on the east of these mountains while Europe is to their west. In fact, Asia and Europe are one continuous landmass. This landmass is therefore called Eurasia.



Mountains to the east of Europe
Mountains, Plains and Rivers

The Alps, the most important mountain ranges of Europe, are covered with snow all year round.

The Caucasian Mountains, which lie between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, form the southern boundary of Europe. They too are very high and covered with snow all year round.

We can see many plateaus in Asia. But, there are no large plateaus in Europe. There are only some small plateaus in France, Germany and Spain. There are vast plains in Europe. Eastern Europe is a vast plain, which stretches across several countries like Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bylorussia etc. These plains experience heavy snowfall and bitter cold in winters. When the snow melts in summer, small streams start flowing. They join to form mighty rivers. It is from these plains that rivers like the Dnieper and the Volga originate.

the Rhine is one of the most important rivers as it flows through several countries and empties itself into the North Sea. There are several major industrial and mining cities on the open sea and thus linked to intercontinental trade.



Mountains in Europe
Peninsulas, Islands and Bays

Italy is surrounded on three sides by the sea. Land masses that are surrounded by the sea on three sides and connected to the mainland on the fourth side are called 'peninsulas'. Norway and Sweden are also part of a peninsula. You can check this out in the map. This peninsula is called the Scandinavian Peninsula.

Some of the European countries, not just on three sides but on all four sides! These are island countries. Great Britain is one such island country.

The presence of a large number of bays and gulfs has also facilitated the use of sea routes.Bays and gulfs are parts of the sea enclosed by land on three sides.The entire Baltic Sea is a large gulf. Deep gulfs or bays are preferred for building harbours as large ships can be anchored in them.



Europe
Climate

Most of its countries experience snowfall in winter. Their summers too are not as warm as ours.


Climate in Europe
Distance from the Equator

The regions near the Equator remain warm all round the year. As we move northwards or southwards away from the Equator, it gets cooler and cooler.



Distance from the equator
The Atlantic Ocean

The climate of Europe is influenced by another factor - the Atlantic Ocean. Countries like Poland and Russia have severe winters while France and Great Britain are comparatively warmer.



The Atlantic Ocean
Westerlies

Since Winds blow from the west, these winds are called 'Westerlies'.



Westerlies
Warm Ocean Currents

One such ocean current is to be found in the Atlantic Ocean. This current originates near the Equator where the waters are warm throughout the year. This current flows westward to North America. Moving northeast wards, it hits the western coast of Europe. This current is called 'Gulf Stream' in America, while in Europe, it is called 'North Atlantic Drift'.



Ocean currents
Four Seasons
  • Winter:December onwards, it gets very cold and snow begins to fall once in a while. It snows heavily on the mountains and less on the plains.

  • Winters
  • Spring: The landscape begins to change as March comes. The days get longer and the nights shorter. The snow begins to melt and new shoots appear on trees. Fresh green leaves appear and colourful flowers bloom everywhere.

  • Spring
  • Summer: Summer is the season of agriculture in Europe. Crops mature in this season. There is no need for irrigation as the occasional showers are sufficient for the crops. At the end of summer, the crops are ready to be harvested.

  • Summers
  • Autumn: The climate changes once again in September and October. Tree leaves turn red and yellow and begin to fall.


Autumn
Land and Agriculture

a large part of Europe is mountainous and not suitable for agriculture. Some countries have very little agricultural land.

Wheat is the main crop in the European plains. It is grown extensively in France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Italy, Greece etc. Fruit cultivation is prominent in southern Europe. Fruits like grapes are used for making wine. The Mediterranean countries like Portugal, Spain, Italy and southern France are famous for their wines.

Barley, oats, rye, sugar-beet, potato etc. are also important crops of Europe. Sugar is manufactured from beet in Russia, Ukraine and Germany.



Land and Agriculture
Agricultural Revolution

large landowners and capitlists took over the agricultural land from small farmers whoabandoned agriculture and took employment in the cities in industries or other services.



Agricultural revolution in Europe
Modern Agriculture

Those who work in the field of agriculture are helped by the government with a lot of subsidy to carry on farming as it gives them less income than other kinds of work. The government pays them for carrying on agriculture in the villages.



Modern Agriculture in Europe
Discovery of Sea Routes

From the very ancient times, the people of Europe have been trading with India and other countries of Asia like Indonesia and China. From these countries, Europe obtained many goods like cotton and silk cloth, gems, ivory and spices such as cloves, pepper and cinnamon that were not available in Europe.



Discovery of sea routes
Industrial Revolution in Europe

The industrial revolution, started in England in the year 1750 and soon factory production spread to France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Russia etc. As the colonies became independent, they had to develop new ways of trading with them.



Industrial revolution in Europe
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