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Class VII - Social: Africa
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Almost half of the northern part of Africa is an arid region and is called?
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Q) south and north of the tropics experience summer as well as winter. They are called?
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Q) The highest peak in Africa is?
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Q) In 1498, a Portugese sailor named Vasco da Gama went around the?
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Q) Traversing the Atlantic Ocean, they used to stopover on the islands of?
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Q) Plantations were started by?
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Q) Mineral oil or petroleum is the most important natural resource of?
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Q) These zones - south and north of the tropics experience summer as well as winter,They are called?
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Q) How many Deserts in Africa?
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Q) Which year the of complete Independence in Africa?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Explain briefly about European Colonies?
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Q) Explain briefly about Climate?
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Q) Explain briefly about the African Coast?
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Q) What is Slave Trade?
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Q) Explain briefly about Independent Africa?
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Q) Explain briefly about Minerals of Africa?
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Q) Write a short note on Plantations in Nigeria?
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Q) Write a short note on People of Africa?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain in detail about Africa - A Vast Plateau?
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Q) Explain in detail about regions with Heavy Rainfall?
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Q) Explain in detail about regions with Moderate and Scanty Rainfall?
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Q) Explain in detail about the People of Africa?
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Q) Explain in detail about Africa, Europe and Asia?
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Q) Explain in detail about Plantations in Nigeria?
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Q) Explain the Independent Africa and Minerals of Africa?
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Q) Explain the Slave Trade and European Colonies?
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Africa
Africa - A Vast Plateau

The continent is a vast plateau of varying height. There are also several mountains on this plateau. The highest peak in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. There are long and narrow valleys in the high plateaus. There are several large lakes in these valleys. There is a region in the north where no rivers are to be seen. This is the Sahara Desert which receives very scanty rainfall. There is only one river, Nile, which crosses the Sahara Desert.



landforms of Africa
Climate

Africa is divided into northern and southern parts.

  • The zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is the hottest region of the world. There is hardly any winter here. This is also known as the Tropic region.
  • These zones - south and north of the tropics experience summer as well as winter. They are called 'Temperate Regions'.

Climate
Regions with Heavy Rainfall

A large part of Africa, on both sides of the Equator, receives heavy rainfall.Central and Western Africa receives heavy rainfall. They have dense forests due to heavy rainfall and warm climate.



heavy rainfall
Regions with Moderate and Scanty Rainfall

A very large part of Africa is extremely arid (dry), where the rainfall is scanty or there is no rainfall at all for several years. Almost half of the northern part of Africa is an arid region and is called the Sahara desert. Thorny bushes and short grasses grow in some parts of this desert. In other parts, there are large stretches of sand, bare hills and rocks, stones and pebbles. In the south, there is another arid region called the Kalahari Desert.



Sahara desert
The People of Africa

Hunters have inhabited the equatorial regions and the deserts. Pastoralists inhabited the high plateaus and Savanna, grazing their animals on the extensive grasslands.



people of Africa
Africa, Europe and Asia

Europeans were familiar only with the northern coastal regions of Africa while the Indian and Arab traders knew about the eastern coast.About 500 years ago, Europeans began their attempts to reach India by the sea route by going around Africa. Traversing the Atlantic Ocean, they used to stopover on the islands of St. Madiera and Azores.In 1498, a Portugese sailor named Vasco da Gama went around the southern tip of Africa and reached India.



Continents
The African Coast

When Europeans tried to go inland, many African tribes came in direct conflict with them.They wanted to establish their rule over Africa and exploit its resources. Hence, the African people resisted the efforts of foreigners to establish themselves in their land.



The African coast
Slave Trade

There was plenty of land in America, but not enough people to work on the fields. To fill the gap, the slave trade from Africa begun. Despite working hard, they were not given proper food or living quarters. In this manner, millions of Africans were enslaved and taken to North and South America and the nearby islands. Lakhs of people died after they were made slaves.Eventually, the slave trade ended in the 19th century and the slaves were declared free citizens in America in 1860.



Slave Trade
European Colonies

Europeans started halting at African ports. Slowly the Portuguese, Dutch, English, French and Germans gained a foothold in the interior and colonized these areas.The Europeans exported African timber, minerals etc. on a very large scale to Europe. In fact, the gold and diamond mines in southern Africa are still under the control of European companies.They established plantations to grow tea, coffee, rubber, tobacco etc. These products were also exported to Europe.



Colonization
Plantations in Nigeria

Plantations were started by the British who were not satisfied with the quantity of wild products collected from the forests. They wanted to produce more and export them.The production increased. Nigerian people started working in these plantations, while the British were their managers. In this way, commercial agriculture of palm, cocoa and rubber began in Nigeria. Cocoa, rubber, palm and palm oil are being exported and this enables Nigeria to earn foreign exchange.



Plantation in Nigeria
Independent Africa

During the last century, African countries gained independence from the control of European powers. New nations came up with their own governments.



Independence in Africa
Minerals of Africa

Africa is the largest producer in the world of precious minerals like gold and diamonds.Mineral oil or petoleum is the most important natural resource of Nigeria.The foriegn companies do bring in new technologies and investments into the mining and processing industries, thus creating employment for the local people. However, they use cheap labour to make huge profits.


Minerals of Africa
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