⛪Home⇐ Class VII Establishment of the British Empire In India


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Class VII - Social: Establishment of British Empire in India
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in?
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Q) The English traders formed the?
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Q) The English traders from France formed the?
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Q) The Battle of Plassey is an important event in the?
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Q) The rebellious soldiers marched towards?
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Q) Which Country the fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market?
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Q) Which Country the European traders formed their own companies to trade?
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Q) Which year the English East India Company also forced the Nizam of Hyderabad to hand over the coastal Andhra Pradesh districts.?
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Q) In 1757 AD English defeated Sirajuddaula, the Nawab of Bengal, at a place called?
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Q) Which year the Based on this suspicion, a similar uprising had occurred at Barrackpur, near Kolkata?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Explain briefly about the Revolt Spreads?
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Q) Explain briefly about Revolt in Every Village?
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Q) Explain briefly about how the Revolt is Suppressed?
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Q) Explain briefly about after the Revolt?
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Q) Explain briefly about Armed Traders?
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Q) Explain briefly about Mercantilism?
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Q) Write a short note on Hyderabad State and the British?
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Q) Write a short note on Revolt of 1857?
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Q) Write a short note on English Impose their Rule?
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Q) Write a short note on Discontent with English Rule?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain in detail about Growing European Interference in the Kingdoms of India?
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Q) Explain in detail about Misuse of the companies Power?
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Q) Explain in detail about the English Impose their Rule?
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Q) Explain in detail about the discontent with English Rule?
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Q) Explain in detail about the Revolt of 1857?
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Q) Explain in detail about the Hyderabad State and the British?
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Q) Explain the Revolt Spreads?
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Q) Explain the Misuse of the Company's Power?
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Q) Explain the Armed Traders?
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East India Company Comes to East
Mercantilism
  • The Company could venture across the oceans, looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
  • The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
  • Spices like pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand.
  • Competition among the European companies inevitably pushed up the prices at which the goods were purchased.
  • Trade was carried out with arms and trading posts were protected through fortification.
  • This effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trade led to intense conflict with the local rulers.

East India Company
Armed Traders
  • The English traders formed the English East India Company while traders from France formed the French East India Company.
  • Both companies fought against each other for many years to capture the trade in India.
  • Each made efforts to drive the other away. They brought armies from England and France to help them in their fight.
  • The companies acquired land in India and built their own forts to wage battles against each other.
  • Once the Mughal empire broke up into these small kingdoms, the companies found their chance to assert their power. Though the Rajas and nawabs wanted more trade they also tried to check the growing military strength of the companies.

Armed traders
Growing European Interference in the Kingdoms of India
  • On many occasions, when they saw two Indian rulers fighting among themselves, they would take sides and get involved in the fight. They would lend their army to one side to help them defeat their rivals. But, in return, the companies would demand and extract many trade concessions from the rulers.
  • The rulers also 'gifted' the companies large amounts of money in return for their military help. This money helped the companies increase their trade even more. Slowly, the English Company began emerging victorious over the French Company in the struggle for dominance in India.


British empire
Misuse of the Company's Power
  • Some Indian rulers exempted the company from paying taxes on many of the goods it purchased from their kingdoms.
  • The Indian rulers soon found that the burden of giving 'gifts' to the English East India Company and bearing the expenses of its army was becoming very heavy.They were also troubled by many other activities of the company.In this way, while the company got richer, its employees and officers also made a lot of money in India and returned home wealthy.
  • Many Indian traders and seths helped the company in its trade. They too showed their goods as belonging to the Company to escape paying taxes.Thus, there was much looting and swindling taking place in the kingdoms under the Company.

East India Company
The English Impose their Rule
  • Many rajas and nawabs understood the British plot and fought hard against them.
  • They included Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the Maratha Sardar Mahadaji Shinde, Nana Phadnawis and others. But their kingdoms were small. One by one, they lost them to the English.
  • The English gradually began to feel that they could make fuller and freer use of India for trade if they themselves ruled the country. So they starting removing the nawabs and rajas and started ruling themselves.In 1757 AD, the English defeated Sirajuddaula, the Nawab of Bengal, at a place called Plassey and established their rule over Bengal.
  • The Battle of Plassey is an important event in the Indian history.
  • The English East India Company also forced the Nizam of Hyderabad to hand over the coastal Andhra Pradesh districts (Krishna, East Godavari, West Godavari, Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Prakasam,Visakhapatnam and Guntur) between the years 1765-1768. These were known as the 'Northern Sarkars' of the Madras province of the company.
  • In return, the English agreed to maintain an army contingent for the use of the Nizam. In fact, this army was used more to control the Nizam rather than to help him.

The English Impose their Rule
Discontent with English Rule

This revolt was started by Indian sipahis or soldiers, who were soon joined by royal families, landowners, farmers, tribal people and craftsmen. The royal families who joined the revolt include Nana Sahib, the adopted son of the peshwa, Tantia Tope, his general, the Begum of Awadh, and Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi. Hindus and Muslims fought together against their common enemy.


Discontent with English Rule
The Revolt of 1857
  • The Indian soldiers began firing their guns on their English officers.
  • These were the same soldiers who had helped the English to conquer the kingdoms of India.
  • They were now fed up with the behaviour of the English. They were not getting their salaries on time and they were not treated with respect in the British army.
  • On top of this, the sipahis suspected that the cartridges for their new guns (rifles) were coated with cow and pig fat to keep them dry. They felt that their religious faith was being violated.
  • Based on this suspicion, a similar uprising had occurred at Barrackpur, near Kolkata in March 1857. The sense of discontent at Meerut was widespread and on this day, the soldiers opened fire on their English officers.
  • The rebellious soldiers marched towards Delhi that very night.

The Revolt of 1857
The Revolt Spreads
  • Many English soldiers were held back to protect the English families. As a result, the revolt could not be suppressed immediately and it spread from place to place.
  • Many royal families, whose kingdoms had been taken away by the English, joined the revolt.
  • Among them were the former Nawab of Awadh and the Maratha peshwa Nana Sahib.
  • Armies of rebel sipahis and rulers from different corners of the country marched towards Delhi.
  • People on the way were helping them hoping that the English would be driven away and the Mughal rule and the earlier political order would be restored.

Revolt in Every Village
  • The peasants and zamindars took up arms together and had the English and their officers on the run. They stopped paying taxes to the British government.
  • They tore up railway lines, burnt down police stations, courts, post & telegraph offices and uprooted the telegraph wires.
  • All these were the new services that the English had introduced in India.
  • As defeat stared the English in their faces, the Indian people became more and more courageous in their fight against the British rule.
The Revolt is Suppressed
  • The English deported Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar to a far away location in Rangoon and it was there that the last Mughal emperor died.
  • The revolt of 1857 was the biggest revolt to challenge the might of the English.
  • After suppressing it, their hold over India became stronger and they ruled the country for the next 90 years.

Revolt supressed
After the Revolt
  • During this period, they changed many of their policies and adopted new ones. In 1858, Queen Victoria of England made an important declaration.
  • She said Indian kings should rule their own kingdoms without anxiety because the English would not try to dethrone them.
  • In this way, they established a close collaboration with the royal families of India.
  • Similarly, the zamindars, too, were given many concessions and were assured that their property would be protected.
  • Now, they directed their efforts towards giving all kinds of concessions to the elite powerful Indians, to conciliate them and ensure that they continued to support the English.
Hyderabad State and the British
  • As with other kingdoms of the time, Hyderabad too came under the influence of the English East India Company.
  • Eventually, the British placed their Resident in Hyderabad who oversaw the entire administration of the state.
  • The Nizam had to appoint his Prime Minister or Dewan on the advice of the Resident and with the approval of the British Governor General.

Hyderabad state and the british
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