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Class VII - science: Weather,Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed are the elements that determine the type of a place?
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Q) The average weather taken over a long time is called?
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Q) Name the thermometer which is used to measure the weather?
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Q) Where is a red eyed frog found?
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Q) What is the climatic condition in the desert?
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Q) The type of climate in Rajasthan is hot and?
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Q) The white fur of _________ helps it to hide from the predator and the prey
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Q) The average weather taken over a long time is called?
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Q) Aquatic ecosystem are mainly classified into?
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Q) Give one example of Fresh water Ecosystem Seas?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Define weather?
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Q) What are the elements of weather?
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Q) The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals. Explain why it is so?
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Q) What is climate? Explain the climatic conditions of any two region of India?
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Q) Why do penguins huddle together? Where are they found?
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Q) What is Climate?
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Q) What is Adaptation to temperature in plants?
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Q) What is Adaptation to temperature in animals?
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Q) What is the Hibernation?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain briefly the adaptations of the polar bear?
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Q) What is the difference between a climate and a weather. Give examples?
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Q) How do elephant living in the tropical rainforest adapt itself? Explain?
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Q) Explain, with examples, why we find animals of certain kind living in particular climatic conditions?
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Q) Where do you find tropical rain forest? Explain atleast three animals with distinct features living there?
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Q) Explain about Climate?
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Q) Explain about the adaptations in aquatic ecosystem?
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Q) Explain in detail about Adaptations in some aquatic plants?
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Q) Explain about Adaptations on the basis of light penetration?
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Q) Explain about the Freshwater Ecosystem?
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Many of our daily activities are planned based on the weather. Even animals adapt different forms of living depending on their habitat.


"The day to day condition of atmosphere at a particular place is called weather. The weather can be comfortable, or can be too hot or cold".

Weather Report

The daily report about weather usually released by the meteorological department is called weather report.
Weather report is often shown along with the news on television.

Elements of weather

The various elements of weather are temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-speed, etc.


Temperature depends upon the duration of sunshine. During the summer season, the duration of the sunshine is longer. Due to this, the temperature is high in summer.
The day temperature is minimum in the morning and maximum at noon.


Humidity is the amount of moisture present in air. Humidity is generally measured in percentage.
Humidity is generally at the highest level during the rainy season.


Amount of rainfall is measured in terms of mm. For this, an apparatus called rain gauge is used.


Speed of wind also affects the condition of weather.

Department of Meteorology

This is a Government Department. The Meteorological Department measures the elements of weather and keeps their record.
Meteorologists use data from satellites and analyse the data to forecast about the weather.


"Climate is the average weather condition of at least 25 years in a given geographical part".

  • The climate of India is said to be hot and humid, because the temperature is usually high and so is the humidity for most parts of the year.
  • The climate of Rajasthan is said to be hot and dry because temperature is very high but humidity is very low. On the other hand, the climate of Kashmir is said to be cold because temperature is low.
  • Rainforest is found generally near the equator.
  • Places near the equator receive more sunshine and hence more rainfall. This makes the place hot and humid.
  • Temperatures vary from 150°c to 400°c generally near the equator.
  • Rainforests are also present in some tropical areas.

Temperature in desert is generally higher and it receives less or little rain fall. So deserts are hot and dry.

Polar Region

Polar Region is at high latitude and hence do not receive adequate sunshine. Due to this, temperature is very low in the Polar Regions.
The Polar Region is covered with snow, because of the low temperature

Climate And Adaptation
  • At several places, such as desert, polar region, etc. climate is very harsh.
  • Many organisms live and thrive at these places, in spite of the harsh climate.
  • Animals and plants living in such places develop certain features which help them survive the harsh climate.
  • To develop certain features in order to survive the given climate is called adaptation.
Adaptation in Polar Region
  • In Polar Regions, the sun does not set for about six months and it does not appear for another six months of the year.
  • These regions are covered with snow for most part of the years.
  • In winter, temperature may down to -37°c. Hence, the climate of Polar Regions becomes extreme and harsh. In spite of such condition, many animals live at those places.
  • Example: Polar Bear, Penguin, Snow Leopard, etc.

  • These animals show various adaptations which help them in surviving in the harsh climate of the Polar Region.
Polar Bear
  • Polar bear has two thick layers of fur over its body.
  • In addition to this, they have thick layer of fat under the skin called blubber.
  • These layers act as insulator and prevent the bear from extreme cold. Because of the white fur, the Polar Bear can easily mix with its snowy background and can hide from its prey and predator.
  • Getting hide with surrounding because of special colour and pattern is known as camouflage
Polar Bear Adaptation
  • Polar bears have wide paws with long curved nails, called claws.
  • This helps them to move on the snow or do swimming to keep them cool.
  • Wide paws work as a rudder, while swimming. They are very good swimmers.
  • Polar bear has a highly developed sense of smell.
  • It helps the Polar bear in finding a fish even from under a thick layer of snow.
  • These adaptations help Polar Bear to survive in the extreme condition of the Polar Region.
  • Penguins also live in the Polar Region. Penguins are of white colour with black back.
  • They have thick layer of fat under their skin. This protects them from extreme cold.
Penguin Adaptation

They usually remain huddled together. This helps in keeping them warm and curved claws which help them to walk in snow and to swim in water.
These adaptations help the penguin to survive in the extreme condition of the Polar Region.


There are many types of birds found in Polar Regions. They fly to the warm regions during winter to survive. Long distance travel; in search of favourable climate; is called migration.


Migratory Birds Flying


Migratory Birds In Their Habitat

Some migratory birds are known to travel as long as 15000 km to keep them survive in opposite climatic conditions. Arctic tern is known to be the longest traveler among the migratory birds.

Arctic Tern Migratory Bird

Apart from birds, many fish and mammals also migrate to other places in such opposite climatic conditions

Tropical Rain Forest

In India, Tropical Rainforests are found in the Western Ghats and in Assam. Rainforests are also found in Southeast Asia, Central America and Central Africa.
Rainforests have plenty of food which supports variety of life. Many animals are found in the rainforests, e.g. leopard, elephant, snakes, tigers, monkey, buffaloes, frogs, apes, lizards, many types of birds, insects, etc.
In spite of plenty of food, there is a high level of competition for survival among animals in the rainforest.

Adaptive features of animals found in rain forest


The colour of lion helps it in blending in its background. Lion has a highly developed sense of smell and night vision. All of these help a lion in catching the prey.

An Indian Lion
  • Elephants have well developed sense of smell.
  • It helps the elephant in finding the food. The trunk has powerful muscles which help the elephant in uprooting even a big tree.
  • Elephants have good sense of hearing which help the elephant in sensing danger way in advance.
  • An elephant uses its trunk to sprinkle water all over its body so that it can cool down its body temperature
An Indian Elephant
  • Monkeys are highly adapted to live in the rainforests.
  • Monkey uses its palms and soles to grip a branch and thus can hang and swing from a branch.
  • It can also use its tail to hold a branch.
  • Monkeys can climb to the topmost branch of a tree and thus can see very far in the jungle.
  • This helps them in sensing the danger and also in finding the food.

The Lion Tailed Macaque which is also known as Beard ape lives in rain forests of Western Ghats. Its most outstanding feature is the silver white mane, which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to it chin.
It feeds mainly on fruits. This beard ape searches for insects under the bark of the trees.

Beard Ape
  • Frogs are adapted to live both on land and in water.
  • The greenish colour of the frog helps it in mixing with the green foliage.
  • Frog has a long and sticky tongue with which it catches its prey.
  • The Red eyed-frog has developed sticky pads in its claws.
  • This helps the Red eyed tree-frog in climbing a tree and in holding on to a branch.
Red Eyed Frog
Bird Toucan

Toucan has a large long beak which helps to reach the fruits on branches of trees.

Important Points
  • Weather Day to day atmospheric condition.
  • Climate Average atmospheric condition for at least 25 years.
  • Elements of weather Temperature, Humidity, Rainfall, Wind-speed, etc.
  • Rainforest Dense forest near equator and tropical regions.
  • Desert A region with little rainfall, high temperature and full of sand.
  • Polar Regions Regions near poles, having very low temperature, area is covered with snow most of the parts of year.
  • Adaptation Special habits of animals which enable them to survive in particular climatic conditions.
  • Camouflage Special colour of animals because of which they can resemble with background of surrounding which hide themselves from predators.
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