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Class VII - science: Transportation in Animals and Plants
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) In which organisms, transportation of substances happens through diffusion and osmosis?
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Q) Is Cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane?
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Q) What is a type of tissue which is responsible for transportation of substances?
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Q) What makes the liquid part of the blood?
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Q) What are responsible for clotting or coagulation of blood?
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Q) Sweat contains water and?
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Q) Haemoglobin is present in _______ cells.
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Q) The two upper chambers of heart are called?
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Q) The rhythmic expansion and contraction of the heart is called ?
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Q) The clot is formed because of the presence of ______ cells in the blood.
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Q) What is Blood Cells?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Explain about diffusion?
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Q) Explain about osmosis?
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Q) Explain about circulatory system in humans?
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Q) What is Blood and Blood Cells?
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Q) Explain about heartbeat and pulse?
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Q) What is Plasma?
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Q) What is the use of Platelets?
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Q) What is the use of Blood Vessels?
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Q) What is the use of Blood Arteries?
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Q) Explain about Capillaries?What is the use of Capillaries?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain the excretory system in humans with neat diagram?
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Q) What is Heart and explain briefly about the human heart?
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Q) Explain about the transportation in plants?
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Q) Draw the diagram of heart with parts?
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Q) Explain the transportation in Unicellular organisms and circulatory system in humans?
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Q) Explain about Veins?What is the use of Veins?
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Q) Explain about Platelets?What is the use of Platelets?
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Q) Explain about Arteries?What is the use of Arteries?
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Q) Explain about Plasma?What is the use of Plasma?
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Transportation In Animals and Plants

Transportation in Unicellular Organisms:
  • In unicellular organisms, transportation of substances happens through diffusion and osmosis.
  • Gases move in and out of the cell by diffusion. Other substances move by osmosis.
Diffusion
  • Random motion of particles in order to attain equilibrium of concentration is called diffusion.
  • Diffusion can be observed in many aspects of day to day life. The aroma of food comes from the kitchen because of diffusion.
  • A pleasant smell of flowers comes because of diffusion. Bad odour of garbage comes because of diffusion.
Osmosis
  • Movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from high water concentration to low water concentration is called osmosis.
  • Osmosis is a type of diffusion. Cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane. Substances move across the cell membrane because of osmosis. Seeds swell up, when soaked in water because of osmosis.

Circulatory System
Circulatory System In Humans
  • Diffusion and osmosis can result in transportation of substances to short distances only.
  • For bigger and complex organisms, there is a need of a more complex system for transportation of substances.
  • The circulatory system in humans is composed of three main components, viz. heart, blood vessels and blood.
circulatory
Circulatory System

Blood
  • Blood is a type of tissue which is responsible for transportation of substances. Blood works as the carrier of various substances.

Following are the main components of blood.

Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma:
Plasma
  • Plasma makes the liquid part of the blood. It makes the largest part of the blood. Plasma is pale in colour.
Blood Cells
  • There are two main kinds of blood cells in the human blood, viz. Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells.
Red Blood Cells or Red Blood Corpuscles (rbc)
  • These are in the shape of discs. They contain a pigment, called haemoglobin. Haemoglobin binds with oxygen and thus is mainly responsible for transportation of oxygen in the body.
  • Haemoglobin also transports some amount of carbon dioxide.
White Blood Cells or White Blood Corpuscles (wbc)
  • These are present in various shapes. wbcs engulf foreign particles and harmful microbes. Thus, Wbcs help in fighting the diseases. wbcs make the immune system of the body.
Platelets
  • Platelets are responsible for clotting or coagulation of blood. In case of an injury, the blood clots after some time.
  • This prevents excess loss of blood. Clotting of blood is a defense mechanism in the body.
Blood Vessels
  • Blood vessels are of three main types, viz. arteries, veins and capillaries.
Arteries
  • Arteries are made of thicker walls. Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to different organs.
  • Pulmonary artery is an exception, because it carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
circulation
Schematic Diagram Of Circulation
Veins
  • Veins are made of thinner walls. Veins carry deoxygenated blood from different organs to the heart.
  • Pulmonary vein is an exception, because it carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
Capillaries
  • These are fine branches of arteries. The capillaries join up to veins which empty into the heart.

Heart

The heart is a small muscular organ which is responsible for pumping the blood. The human heart has four chambers, viz. the right auricle, the right ventricle, the left auricle and the left ventricle.

heart
Sections Of Human Heart
  • The upper chambers are called auricle or atrium. The lower chambers are called ventricle.
  • The following flow chart shows the movement of blood through the heart (the blue colour shows deoxygenated blood and the red colour shows oxygenated blood):
  • From the body → Right Auricle → Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Artery → Lungs → Pulmonary Vein → Left Auricle → Left Ventricle → To the body
Heartbeat
  • While pumping the blood, different chambers of the heart contract and relax in turns.
  • The contraction and relaxation of different chambers produces a thumping sound. This sound can be heard as heartbeat.
  • One heart beat indicates one cycle of pumping action by all the four chambers.
  • The heart of a normal human beats for 72 times in a minute. The heart pumps about 70 mL blood in one beat.
  • This means that heart pumps a whopping 5 litre blood in a minute.
Pulse
  • A certain locations in the body, a pulse similar to heartbeat can be felt.
  • This happens because of blood rushing in with every heartbeat. The pulse rate is same as the heart rate. Pulse can be felt near the wrist, neck, ankle, etc.
pulse
Pulse In The Wrist
Stethoscope
  • This is a device which is used by doctors to listen to the heart beat and pulse. Stethoscope is composed of a long rubber tube, two ear pieces and a diaphragm.
pulse
Stethoscope

Excretion In Animals
Excretion
  • Various activities always go on inside the body of a living being.
  • These activities are collectively called metabolism. Many harmful substances are created during metabolic activities.
  • These substances can prove lethal if not removed from the body in time.
  • Removal of waste from the body is called excretion. The parts involved in excretion forms the excretory system.
Excretory System In Humans
excretory
Human Excretory System
  • The human excretory system is composed of a pair of kidneys, two tubes called ureter and a urinary bladder.
Kidney
  • Kidneys are bean-shaped. They work like filters. Blood laden with waste materials enters the kidney.
  • The waste is filtered from the blood and the purified blood is sent to the normal circulation.
  • The waste along with water is transferred to the urinary bladder through the ureters. The content of the ureter is called urine.
  • Urine contains 95% water, 2.5% urea and 2.5% other wastes. Urine is expelled out from time to time.
  • An adult human being normally passes out 1 - 1.8 L of urine in 24 hours.
Type of waste and mode of excretion
  • Protein is made up of nitrogen. Metabolism of protein creates nitrogenous wastes in the body. The nitrogenous waste is the main waste in animals.
  • The nitrogenous waste takes different forms in different animals. These are Ammonia, Urea and Uric acid.

Based on the type of nitrogenous waste, animals can be divided into following categories:

Ammonotelic
  • Ammonia is the main nitrogenous waste in these animals. Lot of water is required for removal of ammonia. Ammonotelism is present in aquatic animals, e.g. fish, frogs, etc.
Ureotelic
  • Urea is the main nitrogenous waste in these animals. Less water is required for removal of urea. Ureotelism is present in mammals. Humans Major excretory product is urea.
Uricotelic
  • Uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste in these animals. Removal of uric acid requires negligible amount of water. Uricotelism is present in reptiles and aves.
Note
  • Some of the wastes are removed along with sweat. Carbon dioxide is an important waste which is removed through the lungs.

Transportation In Plants
  • For transportation in plants, there are two main tissues, viz. Xylem and Phloem. These are composed of narrow tube-like structures.
  • Xylem is responsible for transport of water, while phloem is responsible for transport of food.
  • Transport of Water And Minerals: Plants take water from soil. Following are the main steps in transport of water in plants.
In Roots
  • From soil, the water enters the root hairs because of osmosis. From root hairs water enters further because of root pressure.
minerals
Transport Of Water And Minerals
In Stem
  • Various factors are at play during transportation of water through xylem in stems.
  • The transport of water through xylem is also called Ascent of Sap.
  • Root pressure is responsible for the rise of water to some height.
  • Capillary action pushes the water further up. The rise of liquid in a very narrow tube is called capillary action. Capillary action happens because of very small diameter of the tube.
  • Adhesion Cohesion: Water molecules stick to each other and make a continuous column inside the xylem tubes.
  • Transpiration: There are numerous small pores on the surface of leaves. These pores are called stomata.
  • Water vapour is continuously removed through stomata during daytime.
  • Removal of water vapour in plants is called transpiration.
  • This creates a pull in the underlying xylem tissues. The pull is called transpiration pull. Transpiration pull creates a suction effect on the water column inside the xylem.
Transport Of Food
  • Food is prepared in leaves and needs to be transported to different plant parts for use and for storage.
  • The transport of food takes place through phloem. Some biological force is used in transport of food in plants.
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