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Class VII - science: Respiration In Organisms
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What is the process of breakdown of food in the cell with the release of energy?
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Q) Name the process in which food is broken down without using oxygen?
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Q) Give an example of an anaerobe?
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Q) In a cockroach through which part air enters the body?
    
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Q) Name an animal who can breathe through the skin as well as their lungs?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is breathing?
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Q) What are anaerobes? Give an example?
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Q) What is breathing rate?
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Q) Explain the breathing process in an earthworm?
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Q) Define inhalation and exhalation?
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Q) Explain briefly the mechanism of breathing in humans?
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Q) Explain the process of breathing in plants?
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Q) Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
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Respiration In Organisms
Introduction

"The biological process in which food is utilized to produce energy is called respiration". Respiration is necessary for survival of living beings. A living being cannot survive even for a few seconds, without respiration. During respiration, it is mainly the carbohydrate which is oxidized to produce energy.
This can be shown by following equation:

Carbohydrate+Oxygen → Carbon dioxide+Water+Enegry

Site Of Respiration:

Respiration happens inside the cells. As respiration happens inside the cell, it is also called cellular respiration.

  • A cell organelle called mitochondria is the site of cellular respiration
Types Of Respiration
Aerobic Respiration

"Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen".
Carbon dioxide and water are the end products of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration happens in most of the organisms

Respiration In Organisms
Anaerobic Respiration

"Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen".

  • Anaerobic respiration usually happens in most of the microbes. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed at the end of anaerobic respiration. In some cases, lactic acid is formed at the end of anaerobic respiration.
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Anaerobic respiration also happens in our muscle cells. When someone runs or walks too fast, one may feel a throbbing pain in calf muscles. This happens because of deposition of lactic acid; produced by anaerobic respiration. Once the person takes rest for some time, the pain goes away.
Respiration In Organisms
During Walking Fast, Some Muscles May Respire Anaerobically
Process Of Breathing
Breathing

"The process of taking in and giving out air for respiration is called breathing".

  • Breathing involves two man steps, viz. inhalation and exhalation.
  • During inhalation, we breathe in air which is rich in oxygen.
  • During exhalation, we breathe out air which is rich in carbon dioxide.
Rate Of Breathing:

When we are doing normal activities, the rate of breathing is normal. The rate of breathing increases when we do strenuous physical works such as running, swimming, jogging, etc. and the rate of breathing decreases when we take rest or when we are sleeping.

Process Of Breathing
  • The breathing is controlled by the movement of diaphragm.
  • "Diaphragm is a membrane which is between the chest and abdomen".
  • The movement of diaphragm is controlled by a group of muscles called intercostal muscles.
  • Respiration In Organisms
    Human Respiratory System
  • When the diaphragm moves down, the ribcage expands. This leads to the expansion inside the lungs. As a result, the air moves into the lungs. This process is called inspiration or inhalation.
  • When the diaphragm moves up, the ribcage contracts. This leads to contraction of the lungs. As a result, the air moves out of the lungs. This process is called expiration or exhalation.
Respiration In Organisms
Mechanism Of Breathing In Human Beings
  • When the diaphragm moves up, the ribcage contracts. This leads to contraction of the lungs. As a result, the air moves out of the lungs. This process is called expiration or exhalation
To Show That Carbondioxide Is Released During Exhalation

Carbon dioxide reacts with limewater to make calcium carbonate. This property is utilized to show the evolution of carbon dioxide during respiration.
For this, take a test tube and pour some limewater in it. Dip a drinking straw in the test tube. Blow air in the limewater through the drinking straw. It is observed that the limewater turns milky. This shows that carbon dioxide is released during exhalation.

Respiration In Organisms
Effect Of Exhaled Air On Lime Water
Breathing In Other Animals

Animals, which belong to Amphibia, Reptilian, Aves and Mammalia, use the lungs for breathing. Amphibians breathe through their skin, when they are in water. Smaller animals have different organs for breathing.

Breathing In Fish:

Fish have a pair of gills. They air which is breathe dissolved in water; through gills.

Respiration In Organisms
Fish
Breathing In Cockroach:

Cockroach and other insects breathe through spiracles and tracheae. There is a network of hollow tubes running through the body of an insect. These hollow tubes are called trachea. Each trachea opens on the body surface in the form of very small pore. These pores are called spiracles.

Respiration In Organisms
Cockroach
Breathing In Earthworm:

Earthworms breathe through their skin. The skin of earthworm always remains moist, which helps in breathing.

Respiration In Organisms
Earthworm
Breathing in Unicellular Animals:

Unicellular animals breathe through the cell membrane.

Breathing In Plants

Plants can be of various sizes. Developing respiratory organs could not be a fruitful solution for plants; because of their unlimited growth. Each plant part breathes through its external layer of cells.

  • Roots breathe through root hairs.
  • Respiration In Organisms
    Roots Breathe Through Root Hairs

  • Stems breathe through epidermis.
  • Respiration In Organisms
    Stems Breathe With The Help of Epidermis

  • Leaves have numerous small pores called stomata; for breathing.
Respiration In Organisms
Leaves Breathe With The Help Of Stomata
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