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Class VII - science: Physical and Chemical Change
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) When carbon dioxide is passed through limewater, it turns milky due to the formation of?
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Q) What is the chemical name of baking soda?
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Q) Name the process in which a layer of zinc is deposited on iron?
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Q) Which reaction involves a change in the physical and chemical properties?
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Q) What are the substances that take part in the chemical reaction?
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Q) Which reaction is one in that two or more reactants combine to form a single product?
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Q) Which reactions are the opposite of combination reactions?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Name a method by which rusting of iron can be prevented?
    
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Q) Explain about crystallisation?
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Q) What is a chemical change? Give an example?
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Q) Explain with an example the process of rusting?
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Q) Explain how painting of an iron gate prevents it from rusting?
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Q) What is a physical change? Explain with an example?
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Q) Describe how crystals of copper sulphate are prepared?
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Q) What is a combination reaction?
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Q) What is a chemical reaction? Explain with examples?
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Q) Explain the concept of writing a chemical equation?
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Q) Explain the types of chemical reactions?
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Q) Explain about the single displacement reaction with examples?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Name the change in which new substances are produced?
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Q) State differences between physical change and a chemical change with examples?
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Q) Explain why rusting of iron objects is faster in coastal areas than in deserts?
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Q) How would you show that setting of curd is a chemical change?
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Q) What is rusting of iron? Why it is considered a monetary loss to the world?
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Q) Explain about the Displacement Reactions with examples?
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Q) What is Oxidation and Reduction Reactions? Explain them with examples?
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Q) Explain the Effects Of Oxidation reactions In everyday Life?
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Q) What is combination reactions and explain with examples?
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Introduction
  • We see different types of changes every day in our surrounding.
  • Growth of trees, rising of sun, setting of sun, different shape and size of moon, burning of coal, paper, wood, etc. are the examples of changes around us.
  • Before knowing the scientific meaning of changes; it is necessary to understand some terms, that is physical properties, chemical properties, reversible and irreversible changes.
Physical Properties: Shape, Size and State of substance are known as physical properties.
Example: When a sheet of paper is folded, its shape changes and this is an example of change in physical property.
Chemical Properties: The internal properties of a substance are known as chemical properties.
Example: Curd is the product of milk but the internal properties of milk and curd are completely different.

Reversible: Things or processes which can be reversed are called reversible. For example, a folded sheet of paper can be unfolded and hence folding a sheet of paper is reversible.

Irreversible: Things or processes which cannot be reversed are called irreversible. For example, when milk turns into curd; it cannot be changed back to milk and hence is an irreversible change.

Types Of Changes

physical Change

  • Change in which only physical properties of a substance change and no new substance is formed is called Physical Change.
  • Most of the physical changes are reversible, this means we can get the substance back even after the change.
Examples:
  • Folding of a paper sheet: A paper can be folded or unfolded and hence it is an example of physical change. Moreover, no new substance is formed in this process, so it is a physical change.
  • Tearing of paper sheet: Even after being torn in very small pieces; each piece is a piece of paper. Since no new substance is formed in this process, so it is a physical change.
  • Melting of wax:In melting, only the state of the wax changes; from solid to liquid. Solid wax can be obtained from molten wax. This is an example of physical and reversible change.
  • Melting of ice into water:In melting, only the state of water changes. Water can be changed to ice and vice-versa. This is an example of physical and reversible change.
  • Freezing of water: After freezing, water changes into ice. In this change; there is only the change in the state of water. Water can be obtained back from ice; by melting.
  • Change of water into vapour (Vapourisation): Vapour is another state of water. Water can be obtained after condensation of vapour. This is a physical and reversible change.
  • Change of vapour into water (Condensation): This is also a physical and reversible change as water can be changed into vapour again by the process of vaporization.
  • Stretching of a rubber band: In this change, only the size of the rubber band changes. The rubber band comes back in its original shape and size, once it is released. This is a physical and reversible change.

Chemical Change

  • Change in which chemical properties of substance changes and a new substance is formed are called chemical changes.
  • Some of the chemical changes are irreversible. Even in case of reversible chemical change, the change cannot be reversed by simple physical processes.
Examples:

    Burning of paper, wood, fuel or anything:
  • When something is burnt, many new substances are formed; especially carbon dioxide is formed in most of the cases. Once something is burnt, the ash or carbon dioxide cannot be turned into the original substance.
  • Hence, burning of anything is chemical and irreversible change.
  • Melting of wax and burning of wax are different kinds of change.
  • Burning of wax is chemical change while melting of wax is a physical change. Burning of wax is irreversible while melting of wax is reversible.

    Reaction between vinegar and Baking Soda:
  • Vinegar is an acid (Acetic acid). The chemical name of baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate.
  • When vinegar reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda), it gives carbon dioxide.
  • A hissing sound is produced when baking soda is added to vinegar.
  • This happens because of production of carbon dioxide. When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water (calcium hydroxide), it turns the lime water milky.
  • This happens because of formation of calcium carbonate. Water is also formed along with calcium carbonate. The reaction involved in this can be written as follows:
vinegar
(CO)2 Carbon dioxide+(Ca(OH)2)Lime water → Calcium Carbonate(CaCO3)+Water(H2O)

  • These are the examples of chemical changes. In the first case, a new substance carbon dioxide is formed. In the second case, a new substance calcium carbonate is formed. The lime water turns milky because of formation of calcium carbonate.
passing
Passing Gas Through Lime Water

  • These reactions are irreversible, as original substance cannot be retrieved from these by simple physical processes.

    Burning of magnesium ribbon:
  • Magnesium ribbon burns with dazzling light in air and forms magnesium oxide.
  • magnesium
    Burning Of Magnesium Ribbon
  • The ash of magnesium oxide gives magnesium hydroxide when mixed with water.
  • Solution of magnesium hydroxide turns blue litmus paper red this shows its basic characteristic.
  • Reaction involved in it can be written as follows:
  • Mg-solid,reacts less readily with water to from a weak base
    Mg + H20 → MgO
    Mg + H20 → MgO ( OH)2
  • These are chemical changes as new substances are formed after change. Original substances cannot be retrieved by simple physical processes.
Reaction between solution of copper sulphate and iron:
  • Copper sulphate solution is blue in colour.
  • Copper sulphate is also known as blue vitriol.
  • When an iron nail or shaving blade is left in copper sulphate solution for some time the colour of solution changes from blue to pale green.
sulphate
Reaction Of Copper Sulphate Solution With Water
  • This happens because of the formation of iron sulphate.
  • Additionally, a layer of brown copper gets deposited over the iron nail or blade.
    The reaction can be written as follows:
  • iron
Rusting Of Iron
  • Deposition of a brown layer on iron is called rusting.
  • In rusting, a new substance is formed. The chemical structures of iron and rust are completely different. Rust is iron oxide. Iron is a grey-black material while rust is reddish brown.
rust
Rust On Car

Thus, this is a chemical and irreversible change. Reaction in rusting can be written as follows:

Fe + H20 + O2   →    Fe2O3
                                                            Iron   Water Oxygen    Iron oxide(Rust)

When articles made of iron come in contact with moisture present in air, they get rusted. Iron is converted into iron oxide, i.e. rust. The iron particle becomes weak in due course as all the iron slowly turns into rust. This is corrosion of iron. Rusting gives a huge monetary loss to the people and nation. Prevention of rusting: For rusting, both water and oxygen should come in contact with iron. If anyone of these is prevented to come in contact with iron, rusting can be prevented.
Painting: articles such as; iron gates, grills, etc. are painted at regular intervals of time.
Applying layer of grease: Applying a layer of grease prevents the iron articles from coming in contact with moist air. This prevents rusting. That is why, grease is applied over the chain of bicycle and also over many machine parts.
Galvanisation: In the process of galvanisation; a layer of non-reactive metal, such as zinc is deposited over iron articles. The layer of non-reactive metal prevents the iron articles from coming in contact with moisture. Thus it prevents rusting.

Crystallisation

Crystallisation: Common salt is obtained by the vapourisation of sea water, but crystals of common salt are very small. When a small crystal of common salt is left dipped in the saturated solution of common salt for some time, big crystal of common salt is obtained. Formation of big and pure crystal of a substance from the saturated solution is called Crystallisation.

    Characteristics of Physical change:
  • Only physical properties of substance change
  • No new substance is formed in this change
  • Most of the Physical changes are reversible
  • Characteristics of Chemical change:
  • Chemical properties of substance change.
  • New substance is formed.
  • Some of the Chemical changes are irreversible.
  • Chemical change cannot be reversed by simple physical means.
  • Signs of Chemical Change:
  • Evolution of heat.
  • Production of sound.
  • Change in colour.
  • Change in smell.
  • Evolution of gas.
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