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Class VII - science: Motion And Time
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What is the distance covered by an object in unit time called?
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Q) What is the motion of a child in a see-saw?
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Q) What is the basic unit of time?
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Q) What is the to and fro motion of a simple pendulum?
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Q) Changing of position is called ?
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Q) Measure of the change in the velocity of an object per unit time is called ?
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Q) What is the formula of Acceleration ?
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Q) Speed of an object moving in a definite direction is called ?
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Q) The quantity that specifies both magnitude and direction is called ?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Define uniform and non-uniform motion?
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Q) What is a speedometer?
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Q) What is speed? What does it state?
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Q) Define an odometer?
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Q) What is a Distance-Time graph?
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Q) The distance between two stations is 360 km. A train takes 6 hours to cover this distance. Calculate the speed of the train?
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Q) What is a Motion?
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Q) What is a Uniform Motion?
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Q) What is a Non - Uniform Motion?
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Q) What is a Uniform circular Motion?
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Q) What is a Acceleration?
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Q) Explain Speed with Direction?
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Q) Explain Velocity-time graph?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) State the relation between Speed, Distance and Time?
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Q) A simple pendulum takes 32 seconds to complete 20 oscillations then the time period of the pendulum is?
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Q) Explain briefly the working of a simple pendulum?
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Q) What is the difference between a bar graph, pie graph and a distance-time graph?
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Q) A car moves with a speed of 40 km/h for 15 minutes and then with a speed of 60 km/h for the next 15 minutes. The total distance covered by the car is?
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Q) Explain briefly about Acceleration?
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Q) Explain Motion along a Straight Line?
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Q) Explain Measuring the Rate of Motion?
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Motion

Introduction

When an object changes its position with elapse of time in respect to a stationary object, such as a building, electric pole, etc., the object is said to be in motion.

Slow And Fast Motion

If an object 'A' covers a distance in less time and another object covers the same distance in more time, the object A is called a faster moving object and object B is called a slower moving object.
In other words, object A has faster motion and object B has slower motion.

Rectilinear Motion:

Motion along a straight line is known as Rectilinear Motion.

Example: Motion of a car along a straight line

Curvilinear Motion:

Motion along a curve line is known as Curvilinear Motion.

Example: Motion of car or any moving object along a curve line

Circular Motion:

Motion along a circle is known as Circular Motion.
For Example: Motion of cyclist along a circular park.

Speed

"Distance covered by an object in unit time is called speed".

Speed = Distance/Time
or
Distance = speed × Time
Speed may be divided into three types:
  • Uniform speed
  • Non-Uniform Speed
  • Average Speed

Uniform Speed:

If an object covers a fixed distance in each unit of time the motion is known as Uniform Motion or Uniform Speed.

Non-uniform Speed:

If an object does not cover a fixed distance in each unit of time the motion is known as Non-Uniform Motion Or Non-Uniform Speed.

Average Speed:

Total distance covered divided by total time taken is known as Average Speed.

Average Speed=Total distance covered/Total time taken

Speed is also known as Velocity

Measurement of time
  • Before the invention of clock, time was noticed with the help of sunrise and sunset.
  • The time between one sunrise and the next was called a day.
  • But now, we make use of clocks or watches to measure time.
  • The working of clocks is rather complex and they make use of some periodic motion.
  • One of the most well-known periodic motions is that of a simple pendulum.
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Wall Clock
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Table Clock
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Digital Clock

Periodic Motion or Oscillatory Motion:

When an object repeats its motion after every fixed interval of time, the motion of the object is called Periodic Motion Or Oscillatory Motion.
In many wall clocks pendulum is used even today.
A device having a string suspended with a fixed point with a bob at bottom is called pendulum

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The motion of pendulum starting from one extreme end to another extreme end and back to the first extreme end is called one oscillation.
Similarly, the motion of a simple pendulum from its mean position to extreme left and extreme right and back to the mean position is called one oscillation.

Time Period:

Time taken to complete one oscillation by the pendulum is called time period.

Time period=Number of oscillation/Time taken
Unit of Time

Time is measured in second. Thus, unit of time is second. Second is denoted by's'.

60 second = 1 minute
60 minute = 1 hour
24 hour = 1 day
7 day = 1 week
365 days = 1 years

Unit of speed:

Unit of speed is meter/second (m/s), or metre/minute (m/min) or kilometer/hour (km/h).

1000 metre (m) = 1 kilometer (km)

Speedometer:

A device used to measure the speed of a vehicle is called Speedometer

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Speedometer

Odometer:

A device used to measure the distance covered by a vehicle.

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odometer
Distance Time Graph

"When distance covered by an object and time taken to cover the distance is represented on a graph, the graph is called distance time graph".
If a vehicle cover a distance of 5 km every hour and travels for 5 hours, the time distance time graph for the given vehicle can be plotted as follows using the table given below:

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Distance time graph of a moving vehicle with a constant speed is a straight slanting line.
Speed-time graph for the same vehicle will be a straight line parallel to x-axis.

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A Pie Chart Showing Composition Of Air:

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Important Points:

Motion:

When an object changes its position with elapse of time in respect to a stationary object, such as a building, electric pole, etc., the object is said to be in motion.

Slow and Fast Motion:

If an object A covers more distance and object B covers less distance in same time, then object A is called in Fast Motion and object B is called in Slow Motion.

Rectilinear Motion:

Motion along a straight line is known as Rectilinear Motion Or Motion Along A Straight Line.

Curvilinear Motion:

Motion along a curve line is known as Curvilinear Motion.

Circular Motion:

Motion along a circle is known as Circular Motion.

Speed:

Distance covered by an object in unit time is called speed. This means Speed is equal to Distance upon Time.

Uniform Speed:

If an object covers a fixed distance in each unit of time the motion is known as Uniform Motion Or Uniform Speed.

Non-uniform Speed:

If an object does not cover a fixed distance in each unit of time the motion is known as Non-Uniform Motion Or Non-Uniform Speed.

Average Speed:

Total distance covered divided by total time taken is known as Average Speed.

Periodic Motion or Oscillatory Motion:

When an object repeats its motion after every fixed interval of time, the motion of the object is called Periodic Motion Or Oscillatory Motion.

Oscillation:

The motion of pendulum starting from one extreme end to another extreme end and back to the first extreme end is called one oscillation.

Time Period:

Time taken to complete one oscillation by the pendulum is called time period.

Unit of Time:

Time is measured in second.

Unit of speed:

Unit of speed is meter/second (m/s).

Speedometer:

A device used to measure the speed of a vehicle is called Speedometer.

Odometer:

A device used to measure the distance covered by a vehicle.
Distance time graph of a moving vehicle with a constant speed is a straight slanting line.
Speed-time graph for the same vehicle will be a straight line parallel to x-axis.

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