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Class VI - social: When,Where and How
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) A written account of events in the past is known as?
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Q) The main source of information for prehistory is?
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Q) Name the process of reading and understanding inscriptions?
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Q) Name the book which was written by Banabhatta?
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Q) Name the traveller who visited India in the 7th Century AD during the Harsha Rule.
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Q) Give an example of a source which was used by the historians to know about the history.
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Q) A person who is an expert of historical artefacts, buildings, monuments, etc. is called?
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Q) Which were the first crops grown by humans?
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Q) The bark of which tree was used for writing?
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Q) Which calendar is now being used in most parts of the world?
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Q) National Archives of India was established in which state?
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Q) The first English newspaper published in India was?
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Q) A text inscribed on stone or any other hard surface is called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is archaeology?
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Q) What is the difference between history and prehistory?
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Q) Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did?
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Q) Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find. Which of these could be made of stone?
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Q) What is an inscription?
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Q) Explain the significance of a coin.
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Q) What is religious literature?
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Q) What are the various names of our country?
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Q) What is history?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain how India got its name?
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Q) What is the role played by newspapers in the national movement?
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Q) What is History? Explain its importance.
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Q) Where did people live during the Pre-Historic period?
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Q) What are: a) Manuscripts and b) Inscriptions
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Q) What are Archaeological Sites?
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Q) What is the significance of dates in history?
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Q) How the paintings of the Stone Age depicted the life of the people?
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History
History
  • History is the study of our past, it tells about when, where, and how people lived they fought in the past, their rulers, their eating habits, occupations and the battles.
  • We learn how human beings have interacted with the elements of nature to create rich culture and civilisations.
For many reason we learn history:
  • History educates us. It helps us make better decision in the present and for the future.
  • A study of the past gives us a sense of identity.
  • We need to know our past to be able to understand our present.
History and Prehistory
  • History is divided into two periods -prehistory and history.
  • Prehistory is the study of events that happened before early humans learnt to write.
  • History began around 5000 years before present.
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Time and Dates
Time and Dates in History
  • It is important to learn how to tell the dates of significant events.
  • The period before the birth of Christ is known as BC or before Christ. The period after that is known as AD or Anno Domini (i.e., 'in the year of our Lord' in Latin).
  • The term circa is used when the date of an event is known for sure.
  • A decade is a period of 10 years, while a century is a span of 100 years, and millennium refers to a period of 1000 years.
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Geographical Framework
Geographical Framework
  • Geography was one of the important factors that influenced the location of early settlements around the world.
  • Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus and China were located in and around river valleys.
  • The geography of a land often has a powerful impact on its history.
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The Himalayas
  • High range of the Himalayas stretch across the north of India.
  • People have travelled in and out of India freely through low-lying points, called passes.
  • Traders, travellers and invaders also entered India through these passes.
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The Oceans and Seas
  • The Indian Peninsular protects India.
  • The long coastline, natural ports and harbours has also encouraged trade with distance lands like Rome, Mesopotamia, Egypt and South-East Asia.
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The Northern Plains
  • The northern plains lying between the Indus and Ganga rivers.
  • The northern plains are very fertile.
  • Many powerful kingdoms and empires (Mauryas and Guptas) established in the northern plains because of growth of agriculture.
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The Deccan Plateau
  • The Deccan Plateau is separated from the nortehrn India by Satpura and Vindhya mountain ranges.
  • The Cholas, the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas were established here.
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Sources
Sources for the Study of History
  • Archaeology, manuscripts, inscripitons, coins and seals are the important sources of information for historians.
  • Monuments are also an important source of information in that time.

Archaeology: Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains.

  • It is a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human culture.
  • They collect and examine human made objects like tools, ornaments, weapons, pottery.
  • Human made objects found at archaeological sites are called artefacts. It provides us clues to how people lived in the past.
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An Archaeological Monument
Manuscripts
  • Manuscripts are documents that have written by hand.
  • Manuscripts are important source of information for historian.
  • In India, manuscripts were written on the dried bark of trees, copper plates and dried palm leaves.
  • Manuscripts were usually written in sanskrit and Pali.
  • Tamil languages used in south India.

Sources of Indian history are basically of three types - religious literature, secular literature and the accounts of travellers.

whenwherehow
Religious Literature
  • Epics like Veda, Ramayana and the Tripitakas provide wealth of knowledge about India's ancient past.
  • These books gives historians information about society, religion and politics at that time.
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Ramayana
Secular Literature
  • Secular literature is about writing on any other subject other than religion, like politics, grammar, medicine and law.
  • Harshacharita written by Banabhatta on 8th century A.D gives us the insight in to the social , economical and political conditions during the reign of Harsha.
  • The Arthashastra written by Kautilya in the 4th century BC, is a treatise on government, economic policy and military strategy.
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Traveller's Accounts
  • Another important source of information for historians are travellers.
  • People from different parts of the world have visited India at various times.
  • Megasthenes wrote a detailed description of Mauryan rule in his book Indika.
  • Hieun Tsang visited India in the 7th century AD during the rule of Harsha.
Inscriptions
  • Inscriptions are words written on rocks, pillars, stones, etc.
  • Some inscriptions contain messages from rulers to their subjects.
  • Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost.
  • The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy.
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Inscription on an Ashokan Pillar

Coins and Seals
  • Coins were issued by the ruler of a country.
  • The coins are the earliest evidence of the economic activity of the human being.
  • The coins were issued in India since 8th century BC to facilitate the economic transaction in their times.
  • The name of the king and the year in which the coin was issued were engraved on the coin.
  • The study of coins is called Numismatics, and it is one of the specialist disciplines to discover the past.
  • Seals found at Indus Valley sites.
  • The seals give us useful information about the civilization of Indus valley. Some seals have human or animal figures on them. Most of the seals have the figures of real animals while a few bear the figure of mythical animals.
  • The seals even have an inscription of a sort of pictorial writing.
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  • The seals show the culture and civilization of the Indus Valley people. In particular, they indicate:
  1. Dresses, ornaments, hair-styles of people.
  2. Skill of artists and sculptors.
  3. Trade contacts and commercial relations.
  4. Religious beliefs.
  5. Script.
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An Indus Valley seal showing the figure of Yogi
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