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Class VI - social: Panchayati Raj
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Where do more than half of India's population live?
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Q) Name the great leader who believed that 'Independence must begin at the bottom'?
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Q) Name the three tier system of local administration?
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Q) Name the person who head a panchayat?
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Q) BDO stands for?
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Q) Explain about grama sabha in one word ?
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Q) According to the law village level is called ?
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Q) According to the law district level is called ?
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Q) What is position of monarchy ?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Define Panchayat Raj?
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Q) Explain the role of Gram Panchayat?
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Q) What is a vocational school?
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Q) What is Gram Sabha?
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Q) Why is local self government described as 'power to the people'?
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Q) What is gram panchayat ?
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Q) Define local government of rural areas ?
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Q) Villages are governed by ?
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Q) Towns and Cities are governed by ?
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Q) Explain about Universal Adult Franchise ?
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Q) What is Representative democracy ?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain the functions of a Nyaya Panchayat?
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Q) What is the composition of the Zilla Parishad?
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Q) Explain any five functions of the Village Panchayat?
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Q) Explain the functions of a block develoment officer?
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Q) Why is the Panchayat Raj system necessary?
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Q) Why is Panchayti Raj essential?
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Q) Explain about Local self government ?
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PANCHAYATI RAJ

Local Government of Rural Areas

    To be able to rule a country efficiently, most governments work at different levels -the national level, the state level or regional level and the local level. In India the central government rules the country at the national level,the state governments rule at the state level, and Panchayati Raj takes care of government at the local level.

Local Self-Government
  • Local self-government is a system where the problems of a local community are managed by people belonging to that community.
  • The people of an area elect bodies that are responsible for solving their problems through the proper use of local resources.
  • Issues like sanitation, water supply,electricity supply and the maintenance of public roads are managed at the local level.
  • The needs and problems faced by people living in villages are very different from those who live in town and cities.
  • Separate systems of local government have been developed for both areas.
  • Villages are governed by Panchayats, Panchayat samitis and Zilaparishads.
  • Towns and cities are governed by Municipal corporations,Municipalities and Nagar palikas.
Panchayat Raj
Structure of different Government
Panchayat Raj
Gram Panchayat Samiti
Panchayat Raj
Mawlynnong in Meghalaya Cleanest village
Panchayati Raj
  • The Panchayati Raj system is a three tier system of local administration based on the concept of the Panchayat.
  • Panchayat literally means a group of five people; this system has been a part of our village life for several hundreds of years.
  • The Panchayat consisted of five respected elders of the village. They would meet regularly to hear out and try to solve the problems of the villagers.
Panchayat Raj
An elder solving problems of villagers in a Panchayat meeting

Why is Panchayti Raj essential?
  • Panchayati Raj is best suited for the development and administrative needs of rural people.
  • It gives villagers a chance to actually participate in decision making.
  • No one can be as familiar and as concerned about their problems as the local people themselves.
  • This understanding of their problems will help them find solutions suitable to their needs.
  • Panchayat Raj trains the people to manage their own affairs.
  • It helps them gain experience in administration.
  • The villagers learn to cooperate and work together to solve their problems.
  • In 24 April 1993, a law came into effect which made it compulsory for all states with a population of more than 20 lakhs to have a three tier system of Panchayat Raj.
    a) The village level called the Gram panchyat.
    b) The block level called the Panchayat samiti.
    c) The district level called the Zilla parishad.

The Gram Panchayat
    The village panchayat consists of three bodies.
  • The gram sabha: This is the general body of all adult villagers
  • The gram panchayat: This is a small committee elected by the members of the gram panchayat differs state to state. Each panchayat is headed by a Sarpanch.
  • The Nyaya Panchayat or the village court: This body provides speedy justice to the villagers. It has more than one village under its control.
Panchayat Raj
A women Sarpanchis holding a gram Panchayat meeting

Panchayat Raj
Village Court or NyayaPanchayat

Functions:

    The function of the Gram Panchayat

  • Construction and repair of village roads.
  • Provision of electricity and street lighting.
  • Provision of drinking water by maintaining public wells and tanks.
  • Maintenance of public health and sanitation.
  • Building and supervision of primary schools.
  • Supply of seeds and fertilisers to farmer.
Panchayat Raj
Village road construction by villagers
Panchayat Raj
Panchayat school
Source of Income
  • The gram panchayat imposes and collects taxes on land, electricity, water, etc.
  • It levies taxes on houses, markets, fairs etc.
Panchayat Samiti
  • The panchayat samiti is the middle level in the Panchayati Raj system.
  • The members of the panchayat samiti are elected by the sarpanchs of all the villages of that block.
  • Members of legislative assembly, members of the legislative councils and members of parliament from that block are also members of the panchayat samiti.
  • Members of a block samiti elect a block chairman.
  • The members have the right to remove the block chairman if they are dissatisfied with him or her.
  • The block samiti is elected for a term of five years.
  • The block development officer (BDO) appointed by the state government is the secretary of the samiti and takes care of its administration.
  • Panchayat Raj
    Office of Block Development Officer

    Functions
  • To prepare, execute and co-ordinate the programme of community development at the block level.
  • To implement plans for the development of agriculture - distribute seeds, implements, and fertilisers to the farmers.
  • To help in the development of animal husbandry, poultry and fishery.
  • To look after drinking water supply, sanitation, education and rural health.
  • Source of income
  • Taxes on land, property, cattle etc.
  • Grants-in-aid from the state government
Zilla Parishad
  • The zilla parishad is the highest level in the Panchayat Raj system.
  • It co-ordinates the working of the block samitis in the districts.
  • It provides a vital link between the village panchayat, the block samitii and the state government.
  • Functions
  • It prepares plans for the development of the district based
  • It supervises the implementation of the Five Years Plans and Community development Plans at the district level.
  • Improvement in agricultural production, sanitation, and health, maintenance of roads and other developmental actions are some of the tasks taken up by the Zilla parishads.
  • It builds and maintains secondary, vocational and industrial schools in the district.
  • Panchayat Raj
    Zilla Parishad High School

    Sources of Income
  • Government grants
  • Taxes
  • Rents from property
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