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Class VI - social: Making A Living
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) The different methods we use to earn a living is known as?
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Q) A person who runs a business venture is known as?
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Q) BPO stands for?
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Q) Service industries are also known as?
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Q) Give an example of a programme which aims at creating jobs for rural people?
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Q) Who is a Chef ?
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Q) The tertiary sector consists of activities that provide services to people?
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Q) The secondary sector consists of those activities Example?
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Q) Which activities is Health care of sector?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is occupation? State the sectors in which it is divided?
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Q) What is a cottage industry?
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Q) Define primary sector of occupation?
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Q) What is a self help group?
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Q) Define migration?
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Q) Write a short note on Secondary Sector?
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Q) Write a short note on Tertiary Sector?
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Q) Write a short note on Marginal farmers?
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Q) Write a short note on Large farmers?
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Q) Write a short note on Landless Farmers?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) What do you understand by unemployment?
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Q) Differentiate between primary, secondary and tertiary occupations?
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Q) Why does the government provide loans to self help groups?
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Q) Name some of the non-agricultural activities in a village?
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Q) Why do people migrate? How does this affect a city?
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Q) Explain the Urban Livelihoods?
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Q) Explain the Migration?
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Q) Explain the Services?
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Q) Explain the Rural Livelihoods?
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    Making a Living

    We need money to buy food, clothes and other basic necessities. The means by which we get this money is called 'making a living'. The different methods we use to earn a living are known as occupations. The different occupations classified to three sectors -
    The Primary Sector, The Secondary Sector and The Tertiary Sector.

The Primary Sector
  • The primary sector consists of those activities where people are engaged in extracting or harvesting things from the Earth, for example agriculture, fishing, grazing, mining and forestry.
  • We cannot survive without the help of people who are engaged in these activities.
Making a Living
Agriculture
Making a Living
Mining
The Secondary Sector
  • The secondary sector consists of those activities which convert raw materials to manufactured goods. For example, the raw materials for the cotton textile industry come from the cotton plant.
Making a Living
Making car from steel
The Tertiary Sector
  • The tertiary sector consists of activities that provide services to people.
  • Health care, transport, communications, banking, insurance come under this sector.
  • Making a Living
    Health Care

Rural Livelihoods
  • Agriculture is the most important occupation in rural areas.
  • Most of the people are dependent on farming.
  • Apart from the agriculture, we find people in rural areas working as teachers, potters, masons, shopkeepers and carpenters.
Making a Living
potter making pot in a village house
Making a Living
Carpenter on work
Farming
  • There are different kinds of farmers in India.
Large farmers
  • Large farmers own large tracts of land.
  • They use modern technology like tractors, harvesters and fertilisers to increase their yield.
  • Many of the large farmers do not work on their own fields. They employ others for that.
  • Many of the large farmers grow cash crops like cotton, sugarcane etc.
  • Making a Living
    Large farmers use machines to till the land

Marginal farmers
  • They till their land by hand or with the help of animal-driven plough.
  • They grow food crops.
  • Marginal farmers work on other farms to get more money.
Making a Living
Marginal farmers tilling the lands

Landless Farmers
  • Landless farmers do not own land.
  • They work on other people's lands to make a living.
Making a Living
Landless farmers marching to delhi

    Urban Livelihoods

  • A large number of people live in our towns and cities. There are varieties of jobs available in urban areas.
Industry
  • Many towns and cities grow up around manufacturing industries.
  • Factories manufacture a variety of things such as plastic goods, cloth, garments, electronic goods paper etc.
  • The various factories that make up these industries employ thousands of people.
  • The owners of these factories join their workers to operate the machines.
  • They have to manage the entire process of production to selling the goods in the market.
  • Their income comes from the profits made by the factory.
Making a Living
Petroleum Industry

Services
  • The service industry employs more than half the people working in cities.
  • Bank, the railways, the postal and telephone services are service providers that employ millions of people across the country.
  • Shopkeepers and business organisations maintain the flow of goods and services in the city.
  • Their income depends on the profits they make from their sales.
  • Another major source of employment in cities is business process outsourcing units (BPO).
  • Call centres are also BPO units. They are centralised offices which handle large volumes of information by telephone.
Making a Living
Indian Postal Service

Migration
  • More people moving from rural areas to urban areas in search of jobs. This movement is called migration.
  • The reason for migration

  • Lack of educational opportunities in rural areas
  • Lack of health facilities in rural areas
  • Seasonal agriculture
  • Lack of employment in the rural areas
  • Unemployment
  • Unemployment generally creates a situation where there is wastage of human resources.
  • Unemployment affects the growth of the economy.
  • The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, the National Food for Work programme, the Prime Minister's Rozgar Yojana, and the introduction of self-help groups are some of the schemes formulated by the government to remove unemployment.
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