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Class VI - social: Major Landforms of the Earth
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) How many landforms are there?
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Q) What is the other name of horst?
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Q) Which plateau is famous for gold and diamond?
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Q) Where is Hundru falls located?
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Q) What is the most populated region of India?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) which are known as plates?
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Q) What is called plate tectonics?
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Q) What is called erosion?
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Q) What is erosion?
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Q) What is deposition?
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Q) Name some of the volcanic mountains?
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Q) Name some of the fold mountains?
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Q) What are the three different types of land form?
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Q) How different land-forms impact people and their live?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain internal forces and how these forces responsible for land formation?
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Q) Explain external forces and how these forces responsible for land formation?
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Q) Discuss about different types of mountains?
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Q) Why mountains are important?
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Q) Explain plateaus and plain land form?
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    Major Landforms of the Earth

    The surface of the Earth constantly undergoes changes due to the action of various forces. These forces are two types - internal forces and external forces.

Internal Forces
  • Internal Forces are forces acting from within the Earth that leads to sudden changes on the Earth.
  • The crust of the Earth is actually divided into several pieces which are called plates.
  • These plates float over the liquid molten rock, which lies below the solid crust.
  • The core of the Earth heats the molten magma.
  • The molten magma rises upwards when heated, spreads, cools and then sinks again, to get heated and rise once more.
  • This constant rising and sinking of the magma keeps pushing the plates that rest on it.
  • Thus the plates are also constantly moving. This movement of the plates is called plate tectonics.
  • Plate tectonics are responsible for the formation of mountains and valleys on the surface of the Earth.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Internal Forces

External Forces
  • The external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
  • The wearing away of the earth's surface is called erosion.
  • The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind.
  • We can group different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus and plains.
Major Landforms of the Earth

Different Types of Landforms
  • On the basis of elevation and slope there are three types of landforms - Mountains, Plateaus and Plains.
Major Landforms of the Earth

  • A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.
  • The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base.
  • It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.
  • Some mountains are even higher than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes colder.
  • In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
  • There are some mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea. Because of harsh climate, less people live in the mountain areas.
  • Since the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.
  • Mountains may be arranged in a line known as range.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Himalayan Mountain Range

There are three types of mountains- Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.

Fold Mountains
  • Fold Mountains are formed by the upliftment and folding of land masses due to lateral compression caused by internal forces.
  • When two plates move towards each other, the place where the two plates meet gets compressed.
  • The crust along the point of convergence gets crumpled or folded.
  • Massive layers of the Earth's crust get uplifted as a result of these converging forces, resulting in the formation of Fold Mountains. The Himalayas and Alps were formed in this way.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Formation of Fold Mountain

Block Mountains
  • When two places on the Earth's crust diverge or get pulled apart, fractures appear on the Earth's surface. These fractures are called faults.
  • When two faults are formed alongside each other, large areas get displaced vertically along the two fault lines.
  • The land between the fault lines either subsides (falls) or rises (gets uplifted).
  • The uplifted part of the land is called horst or Block Mountains.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Horst or Block Mountain

Volcanic Mountains
  • Sometimes conical structures are formed as a result of magma escaping to the surface of the Earth through an opening which is called a vent.
  • These are called volcanic mountains or volcanoes.
  • Magma that reaches the surface of the Earth is called lava.
  • The hot lava flows over the surface of the Earth, cools and then hardens to form lava sheets.
  • Several layers of such lava sheets are deposited on top of each other to form volcanic mountains.
  • Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fuji in Japan are examples of such mountains.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Kilimanjaro in Africa

Importance of Mountains
  • Mountains influence the climate of a land.
  • Mountains are very useful.
  • The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains.
  • Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people.
  • Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity.
  • The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops.
  • Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter, timber, fruits and medicinal herbs.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Major Landforms of the Earth
Mountains are rich source of Flora & Fauna
  • A plateau is a broad, level, elevated area of land. A plateau has a flat top with sharply falling sides; it is also called a tableland.
  • A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.
  • The height of plateaus often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres.
  • Plateaus, like mountains may be young or old. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
  • Most of the African continent is made of Plateaus.
  • Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas in the world are located in the plateau areas.
  • The African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
  • In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau.
  • In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a great height. In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river Subarnarekha and the Jog falls in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls.
  • The lava plateaus are rich in black soils that are fertile and good for cultivation.
  • Many plateaus have scenic spots and are of great attraction to tourists.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Deccan Plateau

  • Plains are large stretches of flat land.
  • They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above the sea level.
  • Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating.
  • Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
  • The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them.
  • They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.
  • Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy. Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world.
  • Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.
  • Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation.
  • There is great concentration of people as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.
  • Because of fertile soils, the land is highly productive for cultivation.
  • In India too, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated regions of the country.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Plain land forms of India

Landforms And The People
  • People have settled down in different kinds of landforms.
  • Settlements are more in the plains as life is hard in mountainous tracts.
  • Plains are very fertile and flat. Plains are suitable for growing crops.
  • They provide better conditions for living.
  • It is possible to build excellent road and railways networks on the plains.
Major Landforms of the Earth
Fertile Plain Land

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