Latitudes and Longitudes

 Mind Maps

Class VI - social: Latitudes and Longitudes
Q) What is a true representation of the Earth?

Q) Which is more accurate than a flat map?

Q) What is a three-dimensional miniature model of the Earth called?

Q) What is the latitude of the equator?

Q) How many latitudes are there on the whole?

Q) Define the globe?

Q) What is axis?

Q) What is latitude ?

Q) What are the different important parallels?

Q) What is longitude ?

Q) What is Standard time ?

Q) What is international date line?

Q) Describe the characteristics of parallels?

Q) What are the different Temperature Zones of the Earth? Describe them in detail?

Q) Explain different time zones of the world?

Q) Describe the functionality of the International time zone?

Latitudes and Longitudes

Globe
• A globe is a three-dimensional model of the Earth in miniature.
• It is a true representation of the Earth.
• A globe is more accurate than a flat map. It also gives us the correct shape and size of continents and countries.
• Globes are different sizes and types.
• Apart from being used to locate places, globes are used to plan long-distance sea and air routes called great circle routes.

Points of reference on a globe
• The Earth spins around an imaginary line called the axis.
• The two end points of the axis are the North Pole and the South Pole.
• The axis of the Earth is tilted at an angle of 23 ½° to the vertical.
• Another imaginary line running around the globe at its middle is called the equator.
• The equator divides the Earth into two equal halves, the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere.
• The absolute location of a place is it's locating using a recognised coordinate system formed by latitudes and longitudes.

Latitudes

• Lines of latitude are imaginary lines that run horizontally across the surface of the Earth.
• They measure the angular distance in degrees, minutes and seconds, of a point north or south of the equator.
• The equator is 0° latitude. It divided the Earth into the Northern hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.
• All the parallels to the north of the equator are called north latitudes and all the parallel to the south of the equator are called south latitudes.

Characteristics of parallels
• Latitudes run parallel to the equator, in an east-west direction.
• They are equidistant from each other.
• The equator is the longest parallel.
• The parallels decrease in length from the equator to the poles.
• The 90° north and south latitudes are just dots and represent the North Pole and South Pole respectively.
• They are numbered upwards and downwards from the equator. They increase from 0° at the equator to 90° at the poles.
• The letter 'N' and 'S' are used to indicate the north and south latitudes.
• There are 181° of latitude on the whole - 90° in the Northern Hemisphere, 90° in the Southern Hemisphere and the equator.

Important Parallels

The important parallels are as under:

• The equator or 0° latitude
• The Tropic of Cancer is at an angular distance of 23 ½°N from the equator.
• The Tropic of Capricorn is at an angular distance of 23 ½°S from the equator.
• The Arctic Circle is at an angular distance of 66 ½°N from the equator.
• The Antarctic Circle is at an angular distance of 66 ½°S from the equator.

The parallels help differentiate the temperature zones of the Earth.

Temperature Zones of the Earth

Each Hemisphere is divided into three temperature or heat zones - the Torrid Zone, the Temperature Zone and the Frigid Zone.

The Torrid Zone
• In the latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the mid-day Sun shines perpendicularly overhead at least once a year.
• These latitudes get the direct rays of the Sun, this is the hottest zone. This is known as the Torrid Zone or the Tropical Zone.

The Temperature Zones
• The latitudes lying between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circlein the Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, get the inclined rays of the Sun.
• They are called temperate zones.

The Frigid Zone
• The latitudes between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere get the least solar energy.
• These regions are very cold and known as Frigid Zones or Polar Regions.

Longitudes

• The vertical lines on the globe are called the meridians of longitude. They run from North Pole to South Pole, cutting the parallels of latitude.
• All the latitudes are of the same length.
• Longitudes are also measured in degrees.
• There are two important meridians -The Prime Meridianand the International Date Line.

Characteristics of Meridians
• Lines of longitude run from the North Pole to the South Pole, in a north-south direction.
• The distance between the meridians decreases pole-ward from the equator.
• The meridians are numbered from the prime meridian.
• There are 360° of longitude.
The Earth Grid
• The lines of latitude and longitude insert at right angles. The grid formed by these criss-crossing lines is called the Earth grid.
• The Earth grid helps us to locate place easily.

Times Zones of the World

Worldwide time Zones
• Sir Sandford Fleming developed the system of worldwide time zones in 1878.
• He proposed that the world be divided into 24 time zones, each separated by 15° of Longitude.
Standard time
• The local time of a place depends on the meridian of longitude that passes through it.
• There are several longitudes passing through India.
• The standard time for each country usually taken as the time of the central meridian of that country.
• Most countries follow a standard time.
• The local time of the central meridian of India, 82°30'E, is taken as the standard time for the entire country. It is called the India Standard Time (IST).
• Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the local time at Greenwich. Thus it can be used for the purpose of calculating time globally.
The International Date Line
• Opposite to the Prime Meridian is the 180° longitude. This is called the International Date Line.
• The Prime Meridian and the international Date Line together divide the earth into two equal halves - Western Hemisphere and Eastern hemisphere.
• There are altogether 360 longitudes around the globe.
• Longitudes that lie to the left of the 0° Prime Meridian, up to the 180° longitude are denoted by the letter 'W' to denote the Western Hemisphere, while longitudes to the right of the Prime Meridian are denoted by the letter 'E' to denote the Eastern Hemisphere.
• There are altogether 180 longitudes in the Eastern Hemisphere and 180 in the Western Hemisphere.
• The International Date Line separates two calendar days. Countries in the Eastern Hemisphere are one day ahead of countries in the Western Hemisphere.

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