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Class VI - social: Farmers and Herders
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) During which age humans changed from hunters and gatherers to farmers and herders?
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Q) The farmers of which state were cattle herders?
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Q) In which country is the oldest wheel?
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Q) What is the large stone memorial called?
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Q) In which present state is Daojali Hading?
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Q) Name a region in India where Mesolithic site has been formed.
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Q) Mention a type of archaeological source which tells us about man's life during Mesolithic age.
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Q) Mention a region in India, where Mesolithic tools have been found.
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Q) Daojali Hading is in the valley of which river?
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Q) Which major discovery of the Neolithic Age helped human beings to change to a settled life?
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Q) Name a Neolithic site which is in modern-day Pakistan.
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Q) Name the second largest component of air.
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is meant by the division of labour?
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Q) How were houses in Burzahom built?
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Q) Define The Neolithic Age.
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Q) Who are tribal people? State their two characteristics.
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Q) What kind of work did Women, Children and Old people do in the Neolithic community?
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Q) What made up a typical Neolithic village?
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Q) Mention the uses of a wheel.
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Q) Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time?
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Q) Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important later?
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Q) What is the significance of burial sites from Neolithic Age?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Name the crops that were grown in the Neolithic Age?
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Q) How did farming begin during the Neolithic Period?
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Q) How farming helped people of Neolithic age to live a settled life?
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Q) Where are the various Neolithic Age sites in the present day India?
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Q) Write a note on Mehrgarh.
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Q) What does the burial sites indicate?
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Q) What did the archaeologists discover in the Daojali Hading?
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Q) Write a note on the invention of wheels.
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Q) Write a note on the life of the tribe.
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Q) What is a Neolithic Age? What were the tools used in this age?
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Farmers and Herders
  • During the Neolithic Age, humans changed from hunters and gatherers to farmers and herders.
  • The warmer climate encouraged the spread of plants and animals to previously cold region.
  • People learnt to grow crop of grains and vegetables, and they also started taming animals.
  • Neolithic settlements have been found different region of the Indian subcontinent.
Agriculture
  • Early humans learnt to plant their own crops and plant their harvests.
  • They also learnt to plough the land before planting seeds.
  • The agriculture revolution brought many changes in the way people lived.
  • They started producing more food than required which led to method of saving for the future.
  • After harvesting every crop fields were cleared for the next season by burning the fields.
farmers&herders
Agriculture in Neolithic Age
Domestication and herding
  • Humans started domesticating animals during the Neolithic period.
  • There was a regular supply of meat from domestic animals like oxen, pigs, and sheep and regular supply of milk from goats.
  • Bones of sheep and goats have been excavated in Karnataka and in the south of the river Godavari.
  • Herding is the management of domesticated animals.The farmers of Piklihal in Andhra Pradesh were cattle herders.
  • Some animals like horses, oxen and bull could be used to plough the land.
  • The animals often needed to be moved from place to place in search of fresh grass.
farmers&herders
A herder
Settlements
  • Settled community living was another result of agriculture. Settled life would also have needed a leader and someone to maintain law and order.
  • Some people would have made tools, some would have taken the animals for grazing and some would have been involved in agriculture.
  • The populations increased rapidly because large quantities of food were available.
  • Neolithic people buried their dead.
  • Many parts of the South India burial places have been marked with rectangular blocks of stone and they were known as megaliths(large stones).
  • People constructed huts of dried grass and mud as shelter.
  • Most settlements were on the slopes of hills or in rock shelters near rivers.
  • The earliest Neolithic settlements are in the valleys of Iran, Iraq, Israel and Palestine.
farmers&herders
Megaliths
Tools
  • Sickles and reaping knives were developed to harvest crops.
  • Heavy tools were used for digging and levelling the land.
  • Stone axes were used to cut down trees and mattocks to break up the soil.
  • The wooden plough was invented during the Neolithic period.
farmers&herders
The stone Axe

Pottery
  • Pots were needed for storing excess grain and milk and water so humans started making pots.
  • In some regions, the appearance of pottery is considered a symbol of the Neolithic, but this notion makes the term Neolithic even more ambiguous, since the use of pottery does not always occur after agriculture: in Japan, pottery appears before agriculture, while in the Near East agriculture pre-dates pottery production.
  • During this period people learnt to make clay vessels and bake them on fire.
  • Pots were used for cooking and eating.
farmers&herders
Clay pot
    Invention
  • The wheel with an axle was the greatest invention of the Neolithic period.
  • The invention of the axle allowed the wheel to turn freely.
farmers&herders

farmers&herders

The different uses of axle:

  • The potter's wheel was used to work clay to make better pots.
  • Heavy objects could be transported on wheels.
  • The wheel was used to spin cotton thread which could then be woven into cloth.
  • The oldest surviving wheel has been found in Mesopotamia in Iraq.
Ornaments
  • People made ornaments of conch shells, lapis lazuli and turquoise beads.
  • Remains of necklaces, bracelets and earrings have been found from Neolithic sites.
farmers&herders
Neolithic age ornaments
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