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Class VI - social: Early Humans - Hunters and Gatherers
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) During which age the wheel was invented?
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Q) The New Stone Age is also known as?
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Q) Palaeolithic Age means Old Stone Age. True or False?
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Q) Name one Palaeolithic site in India?
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Q) In Hunsgi, tools were made of?
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Q) Hunsgi is located in which present state of India?
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Q) People of the Stone Age lived in which natural structure?
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Q) Bhimbetka is in which modern state of India.
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Q) Remains of ashes have been found from the caves of which place?
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Q) Cave paintings usually depict which type of scene?
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Q) Discarded stone pieces and chips can be found on which type of sites of the Stone Age?
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Q) Which site has been termed the World Heritage Site by the UNESCO?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Name the three divisions of the Stone Age?
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Q) Why were the Old Stone Age people nomads?
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Q) What did hunter-gatherers do to sustain themselves?
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Q) Where are natural caves and rock shelter found?
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Q) Write a note on the Palaeolithic Age.
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Q) How was the life of the primitive man?
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Q) Write about the paintings found from Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh?
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Q) Name some places where people lived during the Old Stone Age.
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Q) Explain about the Factory Sites.
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Q) How the paintings of the Stone Age depicted the life of the people?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) What is the Chalcolithic Age?
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Q) Explain in detail about the tools and weapons used in the Palaeolithic Age?
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Q) How the stone tools were useful?
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Q) What were the reasons behind the nomadic life of the early humans?
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Q) Explain briefly about the three phases of the Stone Age.
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Q) What was the impact of Ice Age during the Stone Age?
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Q) Where do people mostly lived during the Stone Age and why do they live there?
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Q) Discuss two possible methods of making stone tools by the primitive humans.
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Q) Explain briefly about the discovery of fire.
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Q) Explain with an example that the people of Stone Age were good artists.
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Human Evolution
  • Humans evolved gradually on earth over a million years.
  • earlyhumanshunters
  • It started in Africa.
  • They modified natural conditions to suit their requirements.
  • They lived simple lives. They hunted animals and gathered fruits, nuts and roots to eat.
  • They lived in caves and made clothes from the bark of trees, animal skin or fur.
  • Early humans used simple tools and weapons made of stone and bone.
Early Humans Hunting
Different periods of Human History
  • The era when humans used mainly stone tools is known as the Stone Age.
  • The Stone Age is divided into the Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic), the Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Age) and the New Stone Age (Neolithic Age).
  • The change from usage of stone to the usage of metals is known as the Copper- Stone Age or Chalcolithic Age.
The Old Stone Age Or Palaeolithic Age(500,000-10,000BC)
  • This is also known as Palaeolithic Age.
  • During the Old Stone Age, humans were hunters and gatherers.
  • They moved in groups.
  • Hunting could not support a growing population in one place so they moved over great distances.
  • In this age humans started burying their dead in elaborate ways and started showing many habits of modern humans.
  • They made simple and crude stone tools and weapons,mainly from stone flakes.
  • A stone ball called Spheroid usually used by the Old Stone Age humans to attack animals from a distance.
  • Complex tools like axes and large flakes were made for cutting animals.
Tools of the Old Stone Age

Shelter and Clothing
  • Animal skin, barks of trees and leaves were used to make clothing.
  • Humans lived in caves, trees or natural rock shelters.
A Natural Shelter of Old Stone Age
A Cloth made of Animal Skin

Art and Discovery of Fire
  • Towards the end of Old Stone Age cave painting started around the world.
  • Altamira in Spain, Lascaux in France and Bhimbetka in India are some of the places where Palaeolithic Age's paintings are found.
  • At the end of Old Stone Age humans accidentally discovered usage of fire.
  • They realized fire could protect them from wild animals and they can cook tastier softer food using fire.
Paintings on Cave wall

Invention of Wheel
  • Invention of wheel during Old Stone Age is one of the most important inventions in history.
  • Humans realized that heavy objects could be moved easily if it is pulled over something round.
  • They started using round shape trunk to put under heavy object, and pull the object to move from one place to another place.
Discovery of fire

The Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Age)

  • Transition period between Palaeolithic age and Neolithic age is called Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic age.
  • This period last around 1000 to 8000 BC.
  • Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh are some of the Mesolithic site in India.
  • Burial sites, tools, cave and rock painting are three sources from where we come to know about Mesolithic people.
Invention of Wheel

Changing lifestyles

  • During 9000 BC climate became warmer and drier.
  • Climate changes bought changes in animal life and plant life.
  • People started hunting and gathering food.
  • Humans also learnt to tame animals and grow crops during this period.
  • Early Humans discovered the value of the seeds of some grasses like wheat and barley.
  • Dog was the first tamed animal. The humans used dog for guarding.
  • Rock paintings have been found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan in the period of middle Stone Age.
Stone Age Harvesting

Tools and implements

  • Large hand axes (spheroids) and microliths, or very small stone tools are found in this period.
  • Microlith sharp edges and were typically less than 3cm in size.
  • Most of the tools weremade of bone, wood or the horn of animals.
  • These lighter tools helped hunting became easier.
  • Hooks and baits invented during this period helped to improve fishing.
Tools made of Copper

The New Stone Age (Neolithic Age)

  • Around 8000 BC, the Middle Stone Age ended and the New Stone Age started.
  • Like the Old Stone Age, the people of the New Stone Age used stone for tools.
  • The New Stone Age was a time when the Earth's climate was warmer than the climate in the Old Stone Age.
  • The people of the New Stone Age also learned how to train animals to be useful to humans.
  • In Neolithic cities, people living close together had to cooperate; they most likely created rules to live by to get along with each other.
  • People in the New Stone Age began to specialize in skills other than farming.
Newstone age

Chalcolithic Age

  • Chalcolithic Age is also called the Copper-Stone Age and during this era people discovered the use of metals.
  • Implements made of both stone and copper were used during this period.
  • People invented the plough, the wheeled cart and the sail boat.
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