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Class VI - social: The Four Realms Of the Earth
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What is the solid portion of the Earth?
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Q) How many continents are there in the world?
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Q) Which is the largest continent of the world?
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Q) Which is the largest continent of the world?
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Q) what is the major river of Africa?
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Q) what is the major river of Africa?
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Q) Which is the longest river in north America?
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Q) Where is Sahara desert located?
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Q) What is the second largest river ?
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Q) Name the southern most continent of the world?
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Q) Which is the smallest continent of the world?
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Q) Which continent Great Barrier Reef situated?
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Q) What percentage of the earth covered by land?
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Q) How much is the length of the Pacific ocean coastline?
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Q) How much is the length of the Atlantic Ocean coastline?
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Q) What is the closest layer to the earth?
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Q) Which atmosphere layer contain ozone layer?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Name the four realms of the Earth?
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Q) What is realms? What are the different realms present in the earth?
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Q) How many continents are there? Name them.
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Q) What is Hydrosphere?
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Q) How many oceans are there? Name them?
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Q) What is atmosphere? What are the different layers of atmosphere?
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Q) What are the main composition of the atmosphere ? Write brief note about it?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Write brief description about Biosphere?
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Q) Write brief description about Lithosphere and its different continents ?
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Q) Write brief description about Hydrosphere and its different Oceans ?
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Q) Write brief description about Atmosphere and its different layers ?
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Major Domains of the Earth

    The three main components of the Earth, which makes life possible, are water, air and soil.
    Life exists only where these three components interact.

    The Earth's system consists of four major subsystems. They are known as domains or realms.

  • Lithosphere (Land)
  • Hydrosphere (Water)
  • Atmosphere (Air)
  • Biosphere (the parts of the Earth where life is found)
  • The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
  • It comprises the rocks of the earth's crust and the thin layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which sustain organisms.
  • There are two main divisions of the earth's surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basin
Domains of the Earth


    There are seven major continents. These are separated by large water bodies. These continents are :

  • Asia
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • North America
  • South America
  • Australia
  • Antarctica
Domains of the Earth

  • Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-third of the total land area of the earth.
  • The continent lies in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent.
  • Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains on the west.
Domains of the Earth
Ural Mountains separate Asia from Europe

  • Europe is much smaller than Asia.
  • The continent lies to the west of Asia.
  • The Arctic Circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides.
Domains of the Earth
Europe Continent

Domains of the Earth
Africa Continent

  • Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 0° latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent.
  • Some parts of it lie in the Western Hemisphere whereas a major portion lies in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Africa is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, in the north.
  • The Red Sea and the Indian Ocean lie to its east. Atlantic Ocean lies to its west.
  • The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert, is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides by oceans and seas.
  • Nile is the major river of Africa.
Domains of the Earth
Nile River in Africa

Domains of the Earth
Sahara Desert

North America
  • North America is the world's third largest continent.
  • It is located in the Northern and Western Hemisphere.
  • It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the west, Atlantic Ocean in the east and Arctic Ocean in the north.
  • The Mississippi River is the longest river in North America.
Domains of the Earth
Mississippi River

Domains of the Earth

South America
  • South America is located in the Western Hemisphere.
  • This continent is located in the south of North America and is surrounded by Pacific Ocean in the West and Atlantic Ocean in the east.
  • In the eastern part of South America, are the Brazilian Highlands.
  • Amazon is the second largest river in the world and it flows through the northern part of this continent.
Domains of the Earth
River Amazon

Domains of the Earth

  • Antarctica is the southernmost continent of the world.
  • It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
  • It is coldest, windiest and driest continent. 98% of the continent is covered with ice.
  • South Pole is located in Antarctica.
Domains of the Earth

  • Australia is a smallest continent.
  • It is surrounded on all sides by the oceans and seas. It is called an island continent.
  • The central part of Australia is covered mostly with desert.
  • The famous natural wonder of the world, the Great Barrier Reef lies in the north-eastern part of Australia in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Lake Eyre is a salt water lake, located in the southern part of Australia.
Domains of the Earth

Domains of the Earth
Great Barrier Reef

The Hydrosphere

  • Hydrosphere refers to that part of the Earth that is covered with water.
  • Hydrosphere consists of water in all its forms. As running water in oceans and rivers and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water and the water vapour in atmosphere, all comprise the hydrosphere.
  • Of the Earth's surface, 71% is covered by water and only 29% by land.
  • More than 97% of the Earth's water is found in the oceans and is too salty for human use.
  • A large proportion of the rest of the water is in the form of ice sheets and glaciers or under the ground and a very small percentage is available as fresh water for human use.

The Oceans of the World

  • Oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface.
  • There are five main oceans. They are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean.

The Pacific Ocean

  • The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the five oceans.
  • It is located between the Southern Ocean, Asia, Australia, and North and South America.
  • The Pacific Ocean is roughly circular in shape. The length of its coastline is 135,663 km.
  • This is the deepest ocean. The average depth of the Pacific Ocean is around 4,030 m.
Domains of the Earth
Pacific Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean

  • The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world.
  • It lies between Africa, Europe, The Southern Ocean and the Western Hemisphere.
  • The length of its coast line is 111,866 km.
  • The shape of the Atlantic is like the letter 'S'.
  • It is smaller than Pacific Ocean. It has a large number of natural ports and harbours.
  • It is the busiest ocean and supports international trade greatly.
Domains of the Earth
Atlantic Ocean

The Indian Ocean

  • The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world.
  • It is located between Africa, The Southern Ocean, Asia and Australia.
  • This ocean is triangular in shape.

The Arctic Ocean

  • The Arctic Ocean tis the smallest ocean in the world.
  • It lies within the Arctic Circle around the North Pole.
  • The Arctic is connected to the Pacific by a narrow stretch of shallow water body called the Bering Strait.
  • Most of the year, the Arctic Ocean remains frozen.

Southern Ocean

  • The Southern Ocean is also known as the Antarctic Ocean.
  • It is found between 60°S latitude and Antarctica.


  • The earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the atmosphere.
  • This thin blanket of air is an integral and important aspect of the planet.
  • It provides us with the air we breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of sun's rays.
  • The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 kilometres.
  • The atmosphere is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties.
  • These layers starting from earth's surface are called the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere.
Domains of the Earth


  • The troposphere is the closest layer to the Earth.
  • 90% of all air is found in this layer.
  • It contains most of the water vapour and dust particles present in the atmosphere.
  • This is the most important layer on the Earth.
Domains of the Earth


  • The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
  • The stratosphere extends from the troposphere to altitudes ranging from 17 to 50 km above the sea level.
  • The stratosphere contains the ozone layer.
  • Temperature increases in this zone.
Domains of the Earth


  • The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere.
  • The mesosphere is directly above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.
  • It extends from about 50 to 85 km above our planet. Temperature decreases with height throughout the mesosphere.


  • The ionosphere is a region of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about 60 km (37 mi) to 1,000 km (620 mi) altitude, and includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.


  • The exosphere is the uppermost region of Earth's atmosphere as it gradually fades into the vacuum of space.
  • Air in the exosphere is extremely thin - in many ways it is almost the same as the airless void of outer space.

Composition of the atmosphere

  • The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, which make up about 99 per cent of clean, dry air. Nitrogen 78 per cent, oxygen 21 per cent and other gases like carbon dioxide, argon and others comprise 1 per cent by volume.
  • Oxygen is the breath of life while nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms.
  • Oxygen is the breath of life while nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms.
  • Carbon dioxide, though present in minute amount, is important as it absorbs heat radiated by the earth, and keeps the planet warm. It is also essential for the growth of plants.
  • The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between the land, water and air.
  • It is in this zone that life, that is unique to this planet, exists.
  • Life on Earth is possible because of its optimum distance from the Sun and the availability of adequate water required for life forms.
  • In the Biosphere, living things form communities based on their physical surroundings.
  • The biosphere is made up of various biomes such as deserts, grasslands and forests.
Domains of the Earth

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