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Class VI - social: Physical Divisions of India
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What are the mountain ranges create the Great Northern Mountains ?
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Q) What is the highest peak of the world and where it is situated?
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Q) What is the highest peak of India?
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Q) Which is called as outer Himalaya?
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Q) Which is the most cotton-growing region in the world?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) How many physical divisions are there in India?
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Q) Name some of the hill station in Himachal?
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Q) What is a drainage basin or a river basin?
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Q) What are the three main parts of peninsular plateau?
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Q) Where is deccan plateau located?
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Q) Where do we find black soil and how was it formed?
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Q) Write brief note about Thar desert, its climate and lifestyle?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Describe the Trans-Himalayan Ranges and its peaks?
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Q) Describe the Himalayan Range, its different sub-ranges and speaks?
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Q) Describe Northern Plain, its location and structure?
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Q) Describe peninsular plateau, its location and structure?
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Q) Write brief note about coastal plain, its climate and lifestyle?
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Q) Write brief note about Andaman & Nicobar Island and Lakshadweep ?
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Physical Divisions of India
  • The physical features of India range from the mighty mountains of the Himalayas to the fertile plains of north India, from the plateaus of the Deccan to the eastern and western coastal plains and from the dry deserts of Rajasthan to the wet hills of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Geographers usually divide India into six major physical divisions.

  • The Great Northern Mountains
  • The Northern Plains
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • The Great Indian Desert
  • The Coastal Plains
  • The Islands
The Great Northern Mountains
  • The Great Northern Mountains consist of the Trans-Himalayan Ranges and the Himalayan Ranges.
The Trans-Himalayan Ranges
  • The Trans-Himalayan Ranges are a series of towering mountain chains that originate from the Pamir Knot.
  • The Pamir, a plateau is also known as the 'roof of the world'.
  • These ranges lie to the north of the Himalayas.
  • The Karakoram is the northernmost mountain range of India.
  • The highest peak of this range is Mt K2 or Godwin-Austin(this region lies in POK or Pakistan Occupied Kashmir).
  • The Ladakhand Zaskar Ranges cut across Jammu and Kashmir from the north-west to the south-east.
Human Diversity
Karakoram Mountain Range
Human Diversity
Godwin-Austin
Human Diversity
Zaskar Range
The Himalayan Ranges
  • The Himalayan Mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges. The northernmost is the Great Himalayaor Himadri, middle Himalaya or Himachal and Shiwalik.
Himadri
  • The northernmost range of the Himalayas is called Himadri.
  • The average altitude of this range is 6000 m. It houses some of the highest peaks of the world.
  • Some of them are the Everest (8848 m), Kanchenjunga (8586 m), Makalu (8481 m), Dhaulagiri (8172 m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Annapurna (8078 m), and Nanda Devi (7817 m).
  • Mt Everest is the highest peak in the world and is located in Nepal.
  • Kanchenjunga is the highest peak in India.
Human Diversity
Mount Everest

Himachal
  • Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri.
  • Many popular hill stations like Shimla, Kullu, Manli, Mussoorie, Nainital and Darjeeling are situated here.
Human Diversity
Shimla

Shiwalik
  • The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.
  • It is also known as the Outer Himalayas.
  • It is made of unconsolidated (loose) deposits. There are flat valleys between the Himachal and Shiwalik ranges called duns, for example, Dehra Dun, Patli Dun, etc.
Human Diversity
Dehradun

The Northern Plains
  • The fertile Northern Plains lie between the Himalayas in the North and the peninsular plateau in the South.
  • This is one of the most extensive plains in the world.
  • The Northern Plains drained by three rivers system, the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra.
  • The plains are built up of rich alluvial soil.
  • An area drained by a river system is called a drainage basin or a river basin.
  • A river system consists of a main river and its various tributaries and distributaries.
  • On the basis of drainage basins plains can be divided into three major regions - the Indus Basin, the Ganga Basin and the Brahmaputra Basin.
Human Diversity
Ganga Basin

The Peninsular Plateau
  • To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular Plateau.
  • It is triangular in shape.
  • It is bounded by the Aravali Range in the north-west, the Vindhya and Satpura ranges in the north and the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats towards the south.
  • The surface of this region is highly uneven, consisting of mountains, valley and plateaus.
  • The Peninsular Plateau is divided into three parts - the Malwa Plateau, the Chhota Nagpur Plateau and the Deccan Plateau.
Human Diversity
Indian Plateau

The Malwa Plateau
  • The Malwa Plateau is located on the west of the Peninsular Plateau.
  • Some of the tributaries of the Ganga, like the Chambal and the Son, originate here.
The Chhota Nagpur Plateau
  • The chhota Nagpur Plateau is located in the north eastern part of the Peninsular Plateau.
  • It is rich in minerals like iron and coal.
  • The Malwa and Chhota Nagpur Plateaus together form the Central Highlands.
The Deccan Plateau
  • The Deccan Plateau is triangular in shape.
  • It is located to the south of Vindhyas and Satpuras.
  • The plateau largely slopes towards the east.
  • There are many east flowing rivers that emerge from the Western Ghats and empty into the Bay of Bengal.
  • The north-western part of the Deccan Plateau is one of the largest lava plateaus in the world.
  • The black soil that was formed by the breaking down of the volcanic rocks is found in Deccan Plateau.
  • The Deccan is the most important cotton-growing region in the world.
Human Diversity
Cotton field in Deccan Plateau

The Thar Desert
  • The Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert lies in the western part of India.
  • It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land.
  • This region gets very little rainfall.
  • It has very little vegetation.
Human Diversity
Thar Desert

Coastal Plains
  • India has two strips of coastal plains.To the West of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.
  • The western coastal plains are very narrow. The eastern Coastal plains are much broader.
  • There are a number of east flowing rivers.
  • The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  • These rivers have formed fertile deltas at their mouth. The Sunderban delta is formed where the Ganga and Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal.
Human Diversity
Sunderban Delta
Human Diversity
River Godavari
The Islands of India
  • The Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the two main island groups of India.
  • The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie in the Bay of Bengal.
  • They are larger than the Lakshadweep Islands.
  • These are coral islands.
  • Both the Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are importance to India for trade and tourism and its defence.
Human Diversity
Andaman & Nicobar Islands

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