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Class VI - Science: Water in Our Life
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What occupies two third of earth?
    
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Q) How much percentage of fresh water is available on earth?
    
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Q) Which water is called as portable water?
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Q) Which state can be represented by ice, snow, hail?
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Q) Which form of water can be converted into liquid form by heating?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What are the uses of water?
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Q) Why do we see more fog in areas where there are a lot of trees during the winter season?
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Q) Why does the water which is split on the floor disappear after a period of time?
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Q) What are Evaporation and Transpiration?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain the different phases of water?
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Q) Write a note on: a) Water Cycle b) Cloud Formation
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Q) Explain the term conservation of water? Propose any three approaches to conserve water.
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Q) Explain the role of human beings in aiding natural disasters.
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Q) Explain in detail about Natural Calamities?
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Q) What is meant by rainwater harvesting? Explain the different methods involved in rainwater harvesting.
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Water
Introduction
  • Water occupies two-thirds of our earth. 97% of water available is salt water found in seas and oceans.
  • About 3% is the fresh water is available on earth. Most of it is in the form of icecaps.
  • Just at about 0.003% of fresh water is available as ground water, lakes, streams, rivers, water vapour etc.
Uses Of Water
  • 70% of our body is made up of water. Water is essential for normal functioning of life processes.
  • Water is used for various activities such in agriculture, industries and domestic purposes. 70% of fresh water is used for irrigating agricultural fields.
  • 22% of water is utilized by industries. 8% of water is used for domestic requirements.
  • Domestic activities include cooking, cleaning utensils, bathing, washing clothes and mainly for drinking.
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    Uses of Water
  • Water is used in dams to generate electricity.
  • A large amount of water is used in agriculture and industries.
  • Water is also a medium of transport.
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    Agriculture
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    Medium Of Transport
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    Generating Electricity
  • Ponds, wells, streams, lakes and rivers are the different sources of drinking water. Drinking water is called as potable water. Oceans and seas supply water to other water bodies through water cycle.
  • A variety of useful salts like sodium chloride, magnesium and potassium are present in saline water.
States Of Water

Water exists in three different states. Water can occur in the solid state.

  • Solid state can be represented by ice, snow or hail. Water can occur in the liquid state.
  • Liquid state of water can be represented by river, rain or sea. Water can occur in the gaseous state.
  • Gaseous state of water can be represented by water vapour.
  • Three states of water are inter-convertible.
  • Solid form of water can be converted into liquid form by heating.
  • Liquid form of water can be converted into gaseous form by evaporation.
  • Gaseous form can be converted into liquid form by the process of condensation.
  • Liquid form can be converted into solid form by freezing.
Where do we get Water from

Rainwater, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water. Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc. are man-made sources of water.

Rain Water

Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.

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Rainwater present on the surface in the form of river
Surface Water
  • Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds and streams is called surface water.
  • The water in rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of snow on mountains. Rivers flow into the sea.
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Water present on the surface in the form of river
Underground Water
  • Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on to the non-porous rocks below. This is underground water.
  • Sometimes due to high pressure, this water sprouts out in the form of springs.
  • It can be obtained by digging wells, sinking tube wells, etc.
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Groundwater
Water Cycle
  • "The cyclic movement of water from the atmosphere to the Earth and back to the atmosphere through various processes is called as water cycle".
  • Different steps of water cycle include evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation and surface run-off.
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The Water Cycle In Nature
  1. Evaporation
    • The water present on the surface of evaporates by the sun's heat. This process of conversion of water from liquid state to vapour state is called evaporation.
    • Evaporation also takes place from wet clothes, fields, ponds, lakes and rivers.
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    Evaporation Of Water From Wet Clothes
  2. Transpiration
    • Plants take in water from the soil to prepare their own food and also for other life processes.
    • They release excess water into air in the form of water vapour by the process of transpiration.
  3. Condensation
    • The evaporated water is carried away by warm air. As the warm air moves higher from the surface of the Earth, it starts to cool down.
    • This water vapour condenses to form tiny water droplets which float in air to form clouds or fog.
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    Formation Of Clouds
  4. Precipitation
    • All these droplets collect to form bigger drops of water. Bigger water drops come down as rain by the process of precipitation.
    • If the air is too cold, the water drops can become snow or hail and may settle on the top of a mountain.
      When these snow or hail melts, they can become part of a river or a stream.
  5. Surface run-off
    • Some amount of rain water is absorbed by the soil and settles down as ground water.
    • Most of the rain water flows down the hills and mountains to collect into rivers, lakes or streams.
    • Rain also washes away the topmost layer of the soil into water bodies.

    This circulation of water through all these different factors is called as water cycle.

Oceans
  • Water cycle plays an important role in maintaining the climate. Oceans absorb heat from the sun.
  • They provide warmth on the land. Water gets evaporated from the surface of oceans by absorption of heat.
  • Water vapour releases heat by cooling in the process of condensation. This continuous absorption and release of heat maintains the constant climate of a particular place.
Natural Calamities

Natural calamities related to water are floods and droughts. These are uncontrolled conditions during which floods and droughts prevailing affect an area or a region on earth.

  1. Floods: The condition during which rain water being everywhere, even submerging the land is called as flood.
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    Floods

    • Floods are caused by rise in the water level in ponds and lakes due to heavy rainfall. The excess rain water flows on to land causing floods. Floods make the soil water-logged.
    • Floods affect normal life by disturbing everything which comes in its way.
    • Floods wash out the living beings such as plants, fish and other animals etc.
    • Floods create water-logging in the soil bringing out stored air from the spaces. Organisms like earthworms, ants, insects, rats, rabbits, snakes living under soil get disturbed by floods.
    • Floods cause heavy loss to human life.
    • Floods damage different types of property.
    • Floods cause uprooting of trees. Floods wash away the crops.
    • Floods result in shortage of food supply.
    • Floods cause stagnation of water forming the breeding ground for many disease causing organisms. Diseases can easily spread out during floods. These are called as water-borne diseases.
    • Floods cause disruption of modes of transport and communication.
    • Floods also disturb many kinds of food chains.
  3. Droughts: Droughts are the conditions which involve abnormally long period of insufficient or no rainfall.
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    Droughts

    • Droughts are caused due to lack of rains.
    • Drought condition results in drying up of wells, lakes, ponds and thereby creating water scarcity.
    • Droughts result in the evaporation of water from the soil leaving the soil dry and patchy.
    • Droughts result in mass death of plants and animals due to dehydration.
    • Droughts affect agriculture and lessen food production.
    • Droughts result in death of animals and birds which provide us animal products like milk, meat and eggs. This scarcity of food results in the famine.
    • Droughts result in forest fires caused by enormous amount of heat from scorching sun.
Water Conservation

Water is an essential natural resource. These exists no life without water. Water is so precious that it has to be conserved.

  • Avoiding water wastage is also a kind of water conservation.
  • Excess rain water running in the river is stored in huge and special structure called as dam.
  • Dams are huge structures built on rivers to hold back excess water. Dams prevent areas from flooding by storing large amount of water.
  • Dams provide water for irrigating fields, domestic use and also drinking water for some areas.
  • Drinking water should not be wasted to water the plants.
  • Water bodies should not be polluted in order to get pure water.
  • Water should not be wasted during irrigation of fields. Modern methods like spraying, sprinkling or drip irrigation should be used.
  • Water should be used judiciously to avoid wastage.
  • Destruction of trees should be controlled to increase the rainfall.
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Water Conservation
Rainwater Harvesting
  • Rain water harvesting includes collection and storing of rain water from the roofs of houses and huge constructions.
  • This is also called as roof-top rainwater harvesting. Constant use of fresh water from the ground results in water scarcity. Rain water harvesting increases the level of ground water.
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Roof top Rainwater Harvesting

Technique involved in rainwater harvesting

  • Rainwater is collected at the roof top.
  • It is allowed to flow into pipes.
  • It is filtered through wire mesh.
  • It is allowed to pour into an underground tank setup to store rainwater. These tanks contain layers of sand, gravel, charcoal that will filter the dirt and other impurities from rainwater.
  • This water seeps back into ground slowly to increase the level of ground water table.
  • Concrete floor does not allow the rainwater to seep into the ground.
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