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Class VI - Science: Materials and Things
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Give an example of an object which is round in shape?
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Q) The amount of space something occupies is called?
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Q) Substances which do not dissolve in water are called?
    
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Q) What is the smallest particle of an element called?
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Q) What is the smallest particle of a compound called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Why a tumbler is not made with a piece of cloth? Explain?
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Q) Explain about the appearance of materials?
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Q) Define Soft and Hard materials?
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Q) What are transparent substances?
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Q) Mention any two categories in which the objects can be grouped.
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Write a note on:
a) Transparent Objects
b) Translucent Objects
c) Opaque Objects.
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Q) What is Lustre? Explain about its properties with examples?
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Q) Explain the following property of materials:
Float and Sink.
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Q) Name three states of matter. In what ways they are different from each other?
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Q) Write a note on materials.
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Sorting Materials Into Groups

Introduction

When we look around, we see innumerable things around us. They look different and have different properties.

Objects Around Us
  • We use variety of objects in our day to day lives. Objects are made up of different materials.
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
    Objects We Use In Our Daily Lives
  • An object can be made from more than one material
  • Example: Cake, Soaps.
  • Different objects can be made from the same material
  • Example: Table, Chair, and Door are made from wood.
  • An object can be made from different materials
  • Example: Bottles from glass, plastic, metals.
Properties Of Materials

Importance of grouping

  • Grouping materials in groups makes it convenient for study. Objects are grouped on the basis of their shapes, the materials they are made up of, and the properties of these materials.
  • Materials can be grouped on the basis of similarities or differences in their properties.
Grouping of objects on the basis of common properties
  • Objects are grouped on the basis of properties like lustre, hard/softness, transparency, solubility, floatation, attraction towards magnet, conduction of heat and conduction of electricity.

Appearance

  • Materials usually look different from each other. Wood looks very different from iron. Iron appears different from copper or aluminium.
  • And we can notice the similarities between iron, copper and aluminium that are not there in wood.
Property – Lustre
  • Materials can be grouped as lustrous and non-lustrous on the basis of lustre/shine possessed by them.
  • Lustrous materials are those that have a shine on them. Due to this property metals are widely used for making jewelry.
  • Example: Gold, silver and most metals are lustrous in nature.
  • Non lustrous materials are dull in appearance.
  • Example: Wood, Plastic, etc.
Property – Hardness/Softness
  • Materials that can be compressed or scratched easily are called soft materials.
  • Example: Cotton, Sponge.
  • Some materials that are difficult to compress are called hard materials.
  • Example: Iron and most of the other metals.
Property – Transparency
  • Materials can be classified as transparent, opaque and translucent on the basis of transmittance of light by them.
Transparent Materials
  • Transparent materials allow light to pass through them completely. One can see through such materials
  • Example: Glass, water, Air and Some plastics.
Opaque Materials
  • Opaque materials do not allow light to pass through them. You cannot see through them.
  • Example: Wood, cardboard and metals.
Translucent Materials
  • Translucent materials allow light to pass through them only partially. They are partially transparent and partially opaque.
  • Example: Butter paper, Frosted glass.
Sorting Materials Into Groups
Matter

Property – state
  • Everything in this universe is made up of matter. Matter exists in 3 states - Solid state, Liquid state and Gaseous state.
Sorting Materials Into Groups
Solid state
  • All solid substances are said to have solid state.
Properties of solid state
  • Solids have definite shapes, volumes and are not compressible.
  • The particles are closely packed and they cannot flow.
Liquid state
  • All liquid substances are said to have liquid state.
Properties of liquid state
  • Liquids do not have definite shapes, they take the shape of the container and have definite volume.
  • The particles of liquids are loosely packed than the particles in solids.
  • They can be compressed to a small extent.
Gaseous state
  • All gaseous substances are said to have gaseous state.
Properties of gaseous state
  • Gases have no definite shape or volume.
  • Particles of a gas are very loosely packed.
  • Gases are highly compressible.
Property – Soluble or Insoluble
  • Substances that completely dissolve in water are said to be soluble in water.
  • Example:Lemon juice, vinegar, sugar, salt are completely soluble in water and form a single layer with water.
  • Materials (solids or liquids) that form distinct layers with water are said to be insoluble in water.
  • Example:Substances like sand and sawdust do not dissolve in water even if you stir them very well. They are said to be insoluble in water.
Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Salt, sugar, Lemon juice, vinegar are completely soluble in water and form a single layer with water, whereas mustard oil and kerosene will not dissolve in water, but will form distinct layers.
  • Liquids that are soluble in water and form single layer with water are said to be miscible in water.
  • Whereas liquids that are insoluble in water and form distinct layers are said to be immiscible in water.
  • Some gases can dissolve in water as well. For example, oxygen dissolved in water is useful for plants and animals that live underwater.
Property – Float or Sink
  • Materials that are insoluble in water either float on the surface or sink in water. Light materials float in water.
  • Example: Paper, Plastic ball etc.
    Sorting Materials Into Groups
    Paper Floating On Water
  • Heavy materials sink in water.
  • Example: Metals, stones etc.
Sorting Materials Into Groups
Stone Sinking In Water
Attraction towards a magnet
  • Substances that are attracted to a magnet are called magnetic substances.
  • Example: Iron, Nickel.
Conduction of heat:
  • Materials that allow the heat to pass through them are called good conductors of heat.
  • Example: Generally metals are good conductors of heat.
  • Materials that do not allow the heat to pass through them are called bad conductors of heat.
  • Example: Plastic, air.
Conduction of Electricity:
  • Materials that conduct electricity are called conductors.
  • Example: Generally metals are good conductors of electricity.
  • Materials that do not conduct electricity are called insulators or bad conductors of electricity.
  • Example: Plastic, Wood, air.
Activity:1
  • Finding the objects made from diffrent materials Name as many things/objects as you can, made using the materials.
ts_mat1.JPG

  • We see that the same material can be used to make different objects .
  • Each object is used for a special purpose. So we need to know the properties of materials, as well as the properties of the objects to decide which material should be used for making an object.
  • Some materials are soft and some are hard. Similarly some are shiny whereas some are non-shiny.
  • Depending on these properties materials are used for diffrent objects
ts_mat2.JPG


Activity:2
Are we able to See through a paper
  • Take a sheet of white paper and try to see a lighted bulb through it .
  • Record your observation.
  • Now put a few drops of oil on that sheet and again try to see the bulb through it .
  • What difference do you notice?
ts_mat3.JPG

  • You notice that in the first case you can't see the bulb but in second case you are able to see the bulb.
  • The materials through which we can see objects, but not very clearly, are said to be translucent.
  • Oily paper is an example of a translucent substance.
  • Some glass panes fixed to windows allow some light to come through but you can't see clearly through them; such type of glass is translucent glass.
  • Can you give some more examples of translucent objects?
  • Try This
  • Take a torch, switch it on and see. Does the light pass through the torch glass?
  • Now cover the torch glass with your palm.
  • What do you observe?
  • Now cover the torch glass with oily paper.
  • What do you observe?
  • In the above activity, when do you observe transparent, translucent, and opaque property?

Activity:3
Light a candle
  • You may have lit a candle with a matchstick many times, holding the burning matchstick to touch the wick
  • of the candle until the wick catches fire.
  • But can you light the candle without touching the wick with a burning matchstick?
  • Do you think this is impossible? Let us see how it can be done.
  • Place a candle in a safe place and light it.
  • The first time, the candle cannot be lit without touching the wick with the burning matchstick.
  • So do just that the first time. Let the candle burn for some time.
  • After about two minutes, hold a burning matchstick in one hand and blow the candle out.
  • What did you notice? Did you see a column of white smoke rising from the wick as soon as you extinguish the flame?
ts_mat4.JPG

  • Now quickly bring the burning matchstick close to this smoke, but do not touch the wick with it.
  • What happens?
  • Did the candle not catch fire from a distance?
  • If you wish, you can make a game of this. See which student in your class can light the candle from the farthest distance.

Activity:4
Do iron objects float?
  • Take some water in a wide mouthed bowl.
  • Put an iron nail in it.
  • What do you observe?
  • Put an empty iron tin in that bowl.
  • What do you observe?
  • Also try to observe whether a wooden piece floats on water.
  • What happens when a wooden bowl is dipped in water?
  • What do you conclude from this activity?
  • Some materials in one shape will sink in water but float on water when they are in other shape.
  • The materials that can sink can be made to float, but all the materials that float cannot be made to sink.

Activity:5
Soluble or insoluble in water
  • Take five beakers with water.
  • Take small quantities of sugar, salt, chalk powder, sand and saw dust.
  • Add each material to separate beakers and stir.
  • Observe the changes and record your observations .
  • We observe that certain materials dissolve when mixed with water.
  • These substances are said to be soluble in water.
  • The materials that do not dissolve are said to be insoluble.
  • Repeat the activity with different liquids like vinegar, lemon juice, coconut oil and kerosene and add them to water.
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