⛪Home⇐ Class VI Fibre to Fabric


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Class VI - Science: Fibre to fabric
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What type of clothes we wear in summer?
    
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Q) What type of clothes we wear in rainy season?
    
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Q) Which fabrics are stretchable, waterproof and wrinkle-free?
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Q) What is the national dress of an Indian woman?
    
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Q) What is the national dress of Japanese woman?
    
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Q) What do we require to protect our body against the weather, sunlight, cold and heat?
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Q) The thinner strands of thread are called?
    
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Q) The fibres obtained from plants and animals are called?
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Q) Give an example of a fibre obtained from plants?
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Q) Silk fibre is drawn from which animal?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What are Natural fibres?
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Q) What are Synthetic fibres?
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Q) How we store Clothes?
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Q) Why do we wear socks and shoes?
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Q) Write the names of two countries and their national dresses.
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Q) Explain about Natural Fibres with examples?
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Q) What are Synthetic fibres?
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Q) What is Weaving?
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Q) When we bump nylon, why it is smelt like burnt paper?
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Q) Explain briefly the process of getting yarn from the fibre.
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Why do we need clothes?
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Q) Explain different types of material of clothes.
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Q) What are the differences between Natural fibres and Synthetic fibres?
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Q) Explain about the clothes we wear.
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Q) How do we care our clothes?
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Q) What is Cotton Ginning?
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Q) What is Fabric? Give the steps involved in the preparation of fabrics.
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Q) Explain how silk is obtained from the silkworm.
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Q) Write a note on the history of clothing material.
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Q) What is Sericulture? Explain the process of extracting silk from cocoons.
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Fiber To Fabric
Introduction
  • The basic necessities for human beings are food, shelter and clothing.
  • Clothes guard our body from external environment. They protect us from insect bite and they make us look good.
  • Depending on the climate of the place people wear different clothes. Clothes are made of different types of materials.
  • Example: Cotton sari is made of cotton, Leather jacket is made of leather, Sweater is made of wool, etc.
Types of Fabrics

List the types of clothes we wear in the following months:


Seasons
Clothes we wear
Examples


Summer
Cotton clothes
fibre to fabric


Winter
Woollen clothes
fibre to fabric


Rainy
Rain coats
fibre to fabric

  • We use fabric as a shield to protect ourselves from different weather conditions.
  • Along with protection, clothes can also be a symbol of beauty and status.
  • Choice of fabric may vary from person to person.
  • Somebody may like to wear clothes made up of light, thin, shiny fabrics. Another person may like to wear clothes that are bright coloured and made of coarse fabrics.
  • Fabrics for casual and formal wear may be different.
  • Personal choice, personality of the owner and the cost of fabric are all-important factors in the selection of the perfect fabric.
  • Coarse fabrics can be used for mopping and making gunny bags but not for making clothes.
Things made up of fabric
Type of fabric Things
Cotton fibre to fabric
Silk fibre to fabric
Wool fibre to fabric
Polyester fibre to fabric
Linen fibre to fabric
  • Cotton fabrics are some what thicker than polyester fabrics.
  • Coarse cotton clothes are heavier.
  • After washing, cotton clothes get wrinkled.
  • Silk fabric is smooth to touch whereas woolens are somewhat heavier than silk fabrics.
Threads in the fabric
  • we are not able to put thread into the eye of the needle, either we twist the end of the thread or we wet the end using saliva.
  • There are thread-like structures in the fabric. These threads are also called "yarn."
  • So fabric is made up of yarn. The end of the yarn is separated into thin strands.
  • This thin strand of thread is made up of still thinner strands. These thinner strands are called "fibers."
  • Every fabric is made up of yarn. If it is cotton fabric, it is made up of cotton yarn which is derived from cotton fibre.
  • Fibre - Yarn - Fabric
Types of Fibres
  • There are different kinds of fibers like cotton, wool, silk, polyester etc.
  • The fibers of some fabrics such as cotton, jute are obtained from plants. Silk and wool are obtained from animals.
  • The fibres that are derived from plants and animals are natural fibres.
  • clothes are also made up of chemically developed yarn like polyester, terylene, nylon, acrylic etc. These are all called "Artificial fibres."

Plant Fibres: Fibres obtained from plant sources are called plant fibres.

  • Example: Cotton, Jute, coir, and linen.
  • Animal Fibres: Fibres obtained from animal sources are called animal fibres.

  • Example: Wool and Silk.
  • fibre to fabric
    Fibres
    Cotton Fibres
    • Cotton fibre is obtained from cotton plants that grow in black soil in a warm climate.
    • In India, cotton is grown in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.
    fibre to fabric
    Cotton Field
    • The cotton plant bears fruits about the size of a lemon, called "cotton balls." The balls are full of seeds and cotton fibre.
    • They burst open when they are ripe. The cotton fibres are collected by hand from the ripe cotton balls. This process is called "picking."
    fibre to fabric fibre to fabric
    Picking Cotton
    • Next, the cotton fibres are separated from the seeds by combing them. This is known as ginning.
    • Earlier, ginning was done by hand, but now a days, a machine is used.
    fibre to fabric
    Ginning Of Cotton Done By Machine
    Jute Fibre:
    • Jute fibre comes from jute plants, which are mainly grown in places that have high temperatures and plenty of rainfall.
    • Jute is cultivated during the rainy season.
      fibre to fabric
    • In India, jute is cultivated in West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh and Tripura.
    • The jute plant is generally harvested when it is in the flowering stage.
    • The stems of jute plants are soaked in water for a few days until they start rotting.
    • Then the fibres are separated by hand from the rotting stems.
    • Once the fibres have been obtained, they are made into yarn by twisting the strands together.
    • fibre to fabric
      Jute Fibre
    • This process of making yarn from fibre is called spinning.
    • Not just jute, even cotton, silk and other fibres are spun to convert them into yarn. Machines are used for spinning yarn on a large scale.
    • Fabrics like khadi are made by spinning yarn on hand operated devices like charkhas and taklis.
    fibre to fabric
    Charkha

    Natural Fibres

    • Cotton, jute, wool and silk are some common examples of natural fibres.
    • In this section,Cotton is obtained from cotton balls or cotton fruits.
    • Usually cotton plants are cultivated in black soil.
    • In our state, cotton crop is widely grown in districts like Prakasam and Adilabad, Nalgonda and most of the districts of Telangana region.
    • Look at the Andhra Pradesh map and list out the places where cotton is grown.
    Activity
    Making cotton yarn.
  • Collect cotton balls from nearby houses or cotton growing fields.
  • fibre to fabric
    • Remove seeds from the cotton balls and separate cotton.
    • Take a small piece of cotton; it using a magnifying lens or under a microscope.
    • You will see small hairy structures. These are the fibres of cotton.
    • After maturing, cotton balls burst and open. Then we can see white coloured strands of cotton fibre.
    • Cotton is usually picked by hands. When cotton wool is separated from seeds, it is called "ginning."
    Making yarn from cotton fibre:
    • Cotton fibre is collected after removing the seeds from the cotton ball.
    • This cotton fibre is cleaned, washed and combed. This fine cotton fibre is used to make cotton yarn.
    • Yarns are dyed and coated with chemicals.Then they become strong enough to make fabrics.

    Mat making
    • Take coconut leaves or two different colour paper strips.
    • Cut and remove middle vein of the leaf to get two halves.
    • Now put these strips parallel to each other .
    • Take one more strip and insert horizontally and alternately between the vertical strips.
    • Finally you will get a sheet like structure. This is the way a mat is prepared.
    • In the same manner, weave a paper sheet by using paper strips.
    ts_ftf1.JPG

    Yarn to Fabric
    Conversion of Yarn to Fabric:
    • For the conversion of yarn to fabric two main processes are used.
    • They are:
      1. Weaving and
      2. Knitting.
    Weaving
    • Weaving is the process of arranging two sets of yarns together perpendicular to each other to make a fabric.
    • Fabrics are woven on looms.
    • These looms may be operated by power or by hand.
    fibre to fabric
    Handloom
    fibre to fabric
    Powerloom
    Knitting
    • Knitting is a process that makes use of a single yarn to make a piece of fabric.
    • While knitting, a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric.
    • That is why, if you pull a single yarn from a torn woolen garment, it keeps unraveling.
    • Knitting can be done by hand or on machines.
    fibre to fabric
    Knitting Done By Hand
    Other useful plant fibres
    Coir
    • Coconut fibre can be woven into fabric called coir. Coir is too rough to be made into garments.
    • It is mostly used to make doormats, carpets and other flooring material.
    fibre to fabric
    Coir Fibre
    Silk cotton
    • Silk cotton is obtained from kapok tree.
    • fibre to fabric
      Silk Cotton Tree
    • The fruits of this tree contain fibres. These fibres are light and fluffy.
    • Silk cotton is used commonly used as stuffing in pillows, sleeping bags and life jackets.
    Hemp
    • Another important plant fibre is hemp. Hemp fibre is obtained from the stems of hemp plant.
    • It is mostly used to make ropes, carpets, clothes, papers and nets.
    fibre to fabric
    Hemp Plant
    fibre to fabric
    Hemp Fibre
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