Q) Who fought and won the battle against slavery in the USA?
Q) Whose method of Satyagraha gained India its freedom?
Q) Who used Gandhiji's non-violent methods of protest to win equality for the Blacks in the USA?
Q) Who is remembered for her selfless service to the poor people of kolkata?
Q) Who became a nun when she was only 12 years old?
Q) What important announcement did Lincoln make during the Civial War in the USA?
Q) What do you mean by Satyagraha?
Q) Who inspired Martin Luther King to adopt non-violent methods of protest?
Q) What vow did the Missionaries of Charity take?
Q) Explain about Non-Cooperation Movement in India?
Q) Why did Mother Teresa start working for the poor?
Q) What Abraham Lincoln did for the Negroes?
Q) Explain about the Satyagraha?
Q) Explain about the Non-Cooperation Movement in India?
Q) What Martin Luther King did for the equality of the Blacks in the USA?
Some People Never Die
Out of the millions and millions of people in the world, there are only few who become great. They may be rules, religious leaders, social workers, scientist, or others who improves the lives of the people by their teaching or work. They always live in our memories. Let us read about some people who made a difference in our lives.
- Abraham Lincoln was born in the year 1809, in a very poor family in the USA
- He spent much of his childhood helping his parents in their work
- He attended school for less than one full year in his entire life
- However, he had a great desire to learn, and was encouraged by his stepmother to read and write
- At the age of 22, he settled in the state of Illinois
- After trying his hand various jobs, he became a lawyer. He was very successful as a lawyer
- At the age of 25 he was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. At that time, slavery was common in the USA
- People from Africa,who were called 'Negroes' or 'Blacks', were kept as slaves by the white people
- They could be bought and sold in the market
- They were treated badly, made to work long hours, and their living condition was very bad. Lincoln was against slavery.
- In 1860, Lincoln was elected President of the USA
- After his election, many states in the south broke away from the USA and announced that they would form a separate nation
- This led to a war between the northern and southern states, which lasted four years
- It is called the American Civil War
- The war was won by the northern states backed by Lincoln, and the USA remained a united country
- Even before the war ended, Lincoln made an announcement giving freedom to the three millions slaves in the USA
- Two years later, a law was passed banning slavery in the USA
- Lincoln was elected President for the second time
- He made plans to remove the differences between the northern and southern state.
- Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat, at that time, British ruled India
- He studied law in England. He then went to South Africa and became a successful lawyer
- South Africa was also ruled by the British at that time
- The Blacks of Africa and the Indians living there were badly treated by the British
- Gandhiji decided to fight against this injustice
- He developed his own method of fighting against injustice
- He opposed injustice by using non-violent methods of protest
- This method was called Satyagraha. Satyagraha in Sanskrit means 'truth and firmness'
- He returned to India after spending more than 20 years in South Africa
- He decided to continue his struggle against the unjust British rule in India using the weapon of Satyagraha
- He launched his Non-Cooperation Movement in India in 1920.
- Gandhiji was arrested, but the British were soon forced to release him
- Later, Gandhiji started many other movements against the British
- Ultimately, the British had to bow before the might of non-violence, and India became free of British rule on 15 August 1947
- Gandhiji was against the practice of untouchability in India
- He worked for Hindu-Muslim unity in India, and was heartbroken when India was partitioned into India and Pakistan
- Gandhiji was shot dead on 30 January 1948 by a person who did not like his methods
- Gandhiji is remembered throughout the world as a great soul
- He is called Mahatma Gandhi. 'Mahatma' means the 'great soul'.
Martin Luther King
- Martin Luther King was the main person who fought against the slavery
- He was born in the southern states of Georgia in USA, in 1929
- Martin Luther King visited India in 1959 to understand Gandhiji's Satyagraha Movement
- He used Gandhiji's non-violent methods of protest, demanding equality for the Blacks in the USA
- On 28 August 1963', 2,00,000 people joined him in his 'March on Washington'
- King was given the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts on 14 October 1964
- Martin Luther King was shot dead in 1968 at the young age of 39
- But, during his lifetime he made it possible for a whole race of people to live with dignity.
- Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born in 1910
- She became a nun when she was only 12 years old and was given the name Teresa
- At the age of 18, she was sent to India to teach at a convent in Kolkata One day she felt as if God was telling her to work for the poorest people of the city
- She left the convent and moved into the slums of Kolkata
- In 1950, she and the people working with her set up a new order called Missionaries of Charity
- Over the years the Missionaries of Charity opened schools, orphanages, homes for leper and homes for dying poor in India and other countries
- For her selfless service for the poor, Mother Teresa received many awards
- Among them are the Bharat Ratna from the Indian government and the Nobel Peace Prize
- She died in the year 1997
- But she will live forever in the memory of the people, especially the poor.