Mind Maps

Class V - Science: Our body - its internal organ system
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) From where do we breathe air ?
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Q) Do you know, where the inhaled air enters our body ?
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Q) Which part in our body supply blood to all parts of the body?
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Q) How many bones are their in our body ?
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Q) Which gives shape and support to our body ?
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Q) Which products are rich in Calcium ?
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Q) The food left after digestion is sent out in the form of Which matter?
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Q) How many types of blood cells?
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Q) An example of organs in plants?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Write some intresting facts about Heart ?
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Q) Write some points about Healthy Habits ?
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Q) Write some points about Nervous System ?
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Q) Write about the importance of blood ?
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Q) Write about the importance of blood ?
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Q) Write a short note on Nervous System?
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Q) Write a short note on Excretory System?
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Q) Write a short note on Spinal Cord?
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Q) Write a short note on Digestive system?
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Q) What happens when we eat a tomato?
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Q) Write a short note on Pulmonologist?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain in breif about Respiratory System-Lungs ?
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Q) Explain about Circulatory system?
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Q) Explain in breif about Skeleton System ?
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Q) Explain about Digestive system ?
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Q) Explain about Excretory system ?
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Q) Explain the Healthy habits?
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Q) Explain the Skeletal System?
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Q) Explain the Intresting Facts?
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We have learnt about the external organs of the body in the earlier lesson. Many organs are present inside our body. Let us name the different organ systems and learn about their functions.

Respiratory System-Lungs
  • We need air to live. As you know we breathe in and breathe out air through our nose.
  • Do you know, where the inhaled air enters our body.The answer is Lungs.
  • Lungs in our body absorbs the oxygen from the air which we breathe in. Nose, wind pipe and lungs are the important organs of the respiratory system.
  • The air we breathe in enters into the wind pipe. The wind pipe divides itself into two, and opens into the lungs.
  • The walls of the nostrils are wet and have tiny hair which stops the dust and dirt particles from entering into our body.
The Respiratory System
  • The air we breathe in enters into the two spongy saclike structures called lungs in our chest region.
  • The lungs are made up of many tiny structures (pluera).
  • The structures help in the exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide.
  • On these walls of the pleura there are many minute blood capillaries.
  • These help in absorbing the oxygen from the air we breathe in and supply it to all the parts of the body through blood.
  • In the same way, they send out the carbondioxide and water vapour.
  • The doctor who treats the diseases of the lungs is called a Pulmonologist.

Circulatory system-Heart
  • Heart supplies blood to all parts of the body.
  • Blood transports the oxygen and a variety of materials obtained from the food which we eat to each and every part of the body.
  • The food we eat is digested in the stomach and then sent into the blood and through blood vessels it is sent to different parts of the body and thus helps to give us energy to perform our activities.
  • Blood helps us to regulate the body temperature and to fight against the disease causing germs.
  • Blood is a fluid tissue made of plasma, which is in liquid form.
  • It contains three types of blood cells.
  • They are Red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood Corpuscles (WBC), and Blood platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all the cells of our body.
  • White blood cells fight against the disease causing germs.
  • Blood platelets help in coagulation of blood.
  • The doctor who treats the diseases of the heart is called a Cardiologist or Heart specialist.
Intresting Facts
  • The size of one's heart is the same as one's own first.
  • Heart is situated in the chest region, 2/3rds two-third is on the left side of chest and 1/3rd one-third is on the right side.
  • Heart pumps the blood to different parts of the body.
  • Heart is a pumping organ.

Blood must be supplied to all parts of the body properly, then only we will be healthy.We should eat healthy food to have sufficient blood in our body. Peanut bar / ground nut bar, gingelly bar (Til), eggs, milk, leafy vegetables etc.must be taken to increase the quantity of blood in our body.

Skeletal System

Press your body with your hand at different places.Did you feel anything hard susbtance.It's nothing but the Bone.Bones plays a crucial rule in our body.We can't walk or run with the help of Bones.So bones plays a crucial role.

Skeletal system
  • There are many types of bones in our sketelal system.
  • There are 206 bones in our body.
  • Some bones are small, some are big,some are wide, some are sharp, some are curved with different shapes and sizes at different parts of the body.
  • Skeleton gives shape and support to our body.
  • It protects the important organs of the body.
  • The bony, frame work in the head is called the Skull.
  • This protects the brain. Back bone is made up of small bones from neck to waist.
  • This helps the body to stand erect. It is also called the Spinal Cord.
  • Calcium helps in keeping the bones strong. We can have strong bones & muscles if we play, walk, run etc.
  • Milk and milk products and leafy vegetables are rich in calcium.
  • We should maintain correct erect posture while sitting and walking.
  • The doctor who treats diseases of the bones is called a "Orthopedician".
  • The bones give shape to the body. We get Vitamin D when we are exposed to sunlight.Vitamin D helps bones and skin to be healthy.

If the bones grow, we grow in height.For strong bones we should take milk, eggs and leafy vegetables. Working, playing and staying out in the sunlight is good for healthy and for strong bones.

Digestive system
  • You might have observed that our stomach seems to become bulged when we drink water or eat food.
  • In the picture given below, the path of the chewed food is shown.
  • Food changes into liquid form i.e., Chyme and passes through the different parts a shown in the picture.
  • The food we eat changes its form in our mouth.
  • The food supplied to different parts of the body is not in the same form in which we eat.
  • It changes into different forms.
  • The solid and liquid foods change into simple substances and finally gets absorbed into the blood.
  • This process of changing starts from the mouth.
  • The absorbed food is utilised by the body and the remaining waste materials are sent out of the body in the form feaces and urine.
Window of the stomach(Dr.Beamont's Experiment):
Dr.William Beamounts
  • In 1822 Dr.Beamont had to treat a soldier named Martin who was injured by a bullet in the stomach.
  • Martin was 18 years old at that time.
  • Martin was healthy before the injury Dr.Beamont dressed the wound and treated him.
  • The wound healed after one and half years. But there was a large hole.
  • The aperture was covered by a loose layer of skin. We could look into the stomach by pressing this layer.
  • The doctor not only used to look into the stomach through this hole but also used to take out the fluid from the stomach with the help of a tube.
  • With this, the doctor got an opportunity for his experiments. Dr.Beamont experimented on Martin's stomach about Nine years!
Dr.William Beamount's Experiment

Scientists did not know how food get digested? How do the disgestive juices in the stomach help in digestion, or how the food is converted to chyme? No one knew if there were any other organs.

  • Dr.Beamont took out a small quantity of fluid from the stomach and put it into a glass jar, to find out if the food kept in a glass jar get digested itself or does this fluid bring any change in the food? He wanted to test this.
  • For this he performed an experiment. He took a small amount of digestive juice from the stomach with the help of a tube and placed twenty pieces of fish in a glass jar filled with 10ml. of disgestive juice at 8.30 am in the morning. He kept the glass jar at the same temperature that is maintained by the stomach i.e. at about 300C.
  • Then he examined the pieces of fish at 2.0' clock in the afternoon. They had dissolved.
  • Dr.Beamont did this experiment with different food items.
  • He used the same food given to Martin and kept it into the glass jar filled with digestive juice.
  • He gave Martin food at the same time and put the food into the glass jar kept out side the body.
  • He compared the time taken by the food to digest. He tabulated his observations.
Let us observe a part of Dr.Beamont Observations given below:

Dr.Beamont discovered many secrets of the digestive system by conducting many experiments.He found that food is digested quickly in the stomach than when placed out side the body.You can observe the same thing in the table given above.

  • Our stomach churns the food items and digests the food.
  • Martin found that when he was unhappy, the process of digestion was slow.
  • He also found that the digestive juices present in stomach are acidic in nature.
  • If someone does not eat food properly or when food is not digested, it leads to acidity.
  • Have you ever heard people complaining about "acidity" or burning sensation in the stomach or chest region.

Thanks to Dr.Beamonts experiments,the process of digestion has been understood.After his experiments, scientists conducted many other experiments, without waiting for patients with bullet injury or people with hole in the stomach.These scientists observed the internal organs using other scientific methods.

What happens when we eat a tomato?
  • Tomato is cut into pieces and chewed.It mixes with the saliva in the mouth,for this the time taken is 5 to 30 seconds.
  • Esophagus carries the food into the stomach. For this 10 to 15 seconds is taken.
  • The food churns in the stomach and mixes with the digestive juices.It is made into small pieces.For this the stomach takes 3 to 5 hours.
  • In the small intestines the food is completely converted into liquid form so that it mixes with blood. For this purpose,food stays for 3 to 4 hours in the small intestites.
  • The food made into very minute particles is transported to all parts of the body after mixing with blood.
  • The undigested food and water enters into the largeintestine. Water and other fluids are absorbed into the blood here. The food stays for 8hrs to 3 days in large intestine.
  • Unwanted wastes in liquid form are sent out in the form of urine.
  • Unwanted wastes in solid form are sent our through the anus (faeces).

We should never over eat and 25% of the stomach must be kept empty. The wastes are sent out easily from the digestive tract, if we drink enough water or eat watery fruits like citrus fruits etc.,

Excretory System
  • In our body many life processes go on continuously.Through these processes many wastes / harmful substances are formed.
  • The unwanted wastes formed in this way from different processes are sent out as they are formed.
  • If the food we eat is digested we get energy.The food left after digestion is sent out in the form of Faecal matter.
  • Excretory system
  • Two kidneys are situated at the back in the waist region.
  • One on either side of the spinal cord, the back bone in our body.
  • They filter the blood and separates impurities from it.
  • These impurities are sent out in the form of urine.
  • Skin is an excretory organ.It sends out the wastes in the form of sweat.
  • The doctor who treats the diseases related to the kidneys or renal system is called an Urologist.
Nervous System
  • Each and every part of our body has nerves.
  • They pass on the information obtained from the sense organs to the brain.
  • Nervous System
  • Brain analyzes the information and gives instructions to the parts of the body through nerves.
  • For example, when a dog barks at you (or) when you ride a bicycle, immediately, the brain co-ordinates with the different body parts and it orders the nerves to take necessary action.
  • Brain functions properly only when you take nutritious diet i.e., all types / kinds of food must be taken in right amounts.
  • The doctor who treats the diseases related to the nerves and brain is called a Neurologist.
  • The organs visible outside maintain the metabolism of various organ systems present inside the body.
  • For this the body needs a balanced diet and healthy life style.
  • We need to follow the healthy habits given below to have a healthy body.

Healthy habits
  • Wake up before sunrise.
  • Excercise daily, play, run and spend sometime in the sunlight
  • Wash hands neatly with soap before eating and after toilet.
  • Eat clean and healthy food. See that the food we eat must contain fruits, vegetables, leafy vegetables. pulses etc.
  • Milk, eggs, fruits are important for the growth and health of the body. Take local and seasonal fruits and vegetables for good health.
  • Care must be taken to prevent diseases.
  • Keep the surroundings clean and neat.
  • Have meals on time.
  • Do not eat foo in excess. Drink plenty of water, when your are thirsty.
  • Do not take soft drinks (beverages), instead, drink coconut water, fruit juices or butter milk which are good for health.
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