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Class V - science: Health and Hygiene
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Anaemia is caused by the deficiency of?
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Q) What caused by deficiency of vitamin A?
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Q) Name two diseases that spread through bacteria?
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Q) Name two communicable diseases?
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Q) Milk, butter,ghee and dry fruits are some sources of?
    
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Q) Chickenpox, ringworm and measles spread through?
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Q) Polio vaccine?
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Q) MMR vaccine to prevent?
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Q) Diphtheria, viral fever, whooping cough and tuberculosis spread through the?
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Q) Sources of Carbohydrates are?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is health?
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Q) What is Hygiene?
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Q) What is the Non-communicable diseases?
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Q) What is the Communicable Diseases?
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Q) What is the Deficiency diseases?
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Q) Explain briefly about Exercise?
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Q) Explain briefly about Posture?
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Q) Explain briefly about Adequate rest?
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Q) Explain briefly about Spread of communicable Diseases?
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Q) Explain briefly about Health and Hygiene?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) How many ways to Spread of communicable Diseases?
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Q) What is the Exercise, Adequate rest and Posture?
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Q) Explain about the good health?
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Q) Explain about Hygiene?
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Q) Explain about Diseases?
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Q) Explain in detail about Non-Communicable Diseases?
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Q) Explain in detail about Improper development of bones & teeth?
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Q) Explain in detail about Anaemia?
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Q) Explain in detail about Health and Hygiene?
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Health and Hygiene

Components

  • Our food contains five main nutrients namely carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Also contains roughage and water.
  • These components are needed in right amount to remain healthy.

Carbohydrates

  • Energy to work and play.
  • Eg:- Cereals, pulses, fruits, sugar, potato and honey.
  • To do lot of physical work we need carbohydrates.
components1

Fats

  • Give energy to us. Fats give more carbohydrates.
  • Eg:- vegetable oil, milk, butter, ghee, cheese, cream and dry fruits.
  • Excess eating of fatty foods can make us obese (eat).
  • Obesity can cause diabetes and heart diseases.
  • Extra fat is stored in the body, our body can use later.
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Cream

Proteins

  • Help us grow.
  • Muscle Building and for repairing worn out tissues.
  • Eg:- Milk and its products, chicken, fish, eggs.
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Vitamins

  • Keep us fit and improve our ability to fight disease.
  • Eg:- fruits, eggs and green leafy vegetables.
  • Lack of vitamins in our body causes diseases.
  • Lack of vitamin A causes blindness.
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Minerals

  • Keep our body healthy.
  • They strengthen the bones and maintain a normal heartbeat.
  • Eg:- Iodine, phosphorous, calcium.
  • Lack of Iron-anaemia
  • Lack of Iodine-goitre
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Roughage and Water

  • Are the fibres present in our food.
  • They help us to get rid of undigested food.
  • Eg:- Salad, unpeeled apple and corn we should also drink lot of water.
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Balanced Diet

  • Contains sufficient amount of different components of food like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, roughage and water needed for the healthy functioning of our body.
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Diseases

  • A disease is a condition in which our body or part of it does not function properly.

Two types of diseases

  • Communicable Diseases
  • Non-Communicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases:-

  • Diseases that do not spread from one person to another are called Non-communicable diseases.

Deficiency diseases:-

  • Deficiency of nutrients like carbohydrates, fat, proteins, vitamins or minerals in our diet.
Deficiency disease Caused by Symptoms Food rich in nutrient

Marasmus

Carbohydrates
  • Become thin.
  • Loose folds of skin can be seen all over the body.
  • Ribs of the child are visible.
Rice, wheat, potatoes, maize honey.

Kwashiorkor

Proteins
  • Abdomen gets swollen and bulges out.
  • The legs become thin.
Eggs, fish, meat, cereals, pulses.

Anaemia

Iron Extreme fatigue, weakness, pale skin. Eggs, pulses, spinach, green leafy vegetables, dates.

Goitre

Iodine Swelling of the thyroid gland Fish, sea-food, iodised salt

Improper development of bones & teeth

Calcium and phosphorus The bones and teeth become weak and brittle. Milk, green leafy vegetables, meat and fish, pulses, nuts

Night-blindness

Vitamin A A person cannot see in dim light Carrot, spinach, milk, papaya, green leafy vegetables.

Beri - beri

Vitamin B Skin becomes dry and scaly extreme weakness affects the nervous system and muscles. Milk, eggs, meat, green leafy vegetables.

Scurvy

Vitamin C Swelling and bleeding of gums. Amla, tomatoes and citrus fruits like lemon, oranges, limes

Rickets

Vitamin D Bow legs (bent legs) bending of the spine. Milk, fish, eggs, sunlight.

Diseases

Communicable Diseases

  • The diseases that can spread from one person to another are called Communicable diseases.
  • Caused by Micro organisms called germs.
GermsDiseases
BacteriaCholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid, plague
Viruses Common cold, flu, polio, chicken pox, measles, AIDS
Protozoa Malaria, dysentery

Spread of communicable Diseases

Germs from sick person travel to a healthy person and causes a disease.

Through air:-

  • Coughing, sneezing or spitting releases germs into the air.
  • When a healthy person breathes this air, germs enter his body and make him sick.
  • Eg:-Common cold, diphtheria, viral fever, whooping cough and tuberculosis.

Infected food &water:-

  • If the food and water are not stored properly, food and water gets infected.
  • This infected food & water cause diseases.
  • Eg:-Diarrhoea, typhoid, jaundice and cholera.

Through Direct contact:-

  • By coming in contact with an infected person.
  • Eg:-Chicken pox, measles, ringworm.
  • Spread through direct contact.

Through insects:-

  • When female Anopheles mosquito bites a sick person suffering from malaria, it sucks the malaria germs along with the sick person blood. If the same mosquito bites a healthy person, then healthy person also become sick.

Vaccination:-

  • Effective way of preventing communicable diseases.
  • Vaccines is small quantities of very weak germs.
  • They are given orally or injected into child's body.
  • When these weak germs enter the body produces substances capable of fighting the germs of that disease.
  • This creates immunity against a particular disease.

Eg:-

Polio VaccineTo prevent polio.
DPT VaccineDiphtheria,tetanus and pertussis.
MMRMeasles, mumps, rubella.
Edward JenneerInvented vaccine to prevent small pox.
Louis PasteurMicrobiologist invented vaccines to prevent cholera and rabies.

Hygiene

Defined as good habits that ensure cleanliness and good health.

Hygiene

  • Wash hands with soap and water before and after eating and after going to the toilet.
  • Bath daily.
  • Brush teeth twice daily.
  • Cut nails regularly.
  • Kitchen, floor, toilet and bathroom, it should be cleaned with disinfectant.
  • Food should be properly covered.
  • Keep surroundings clean.
  • Never throw garbage in the open.
  • Dustbin should be covered.
  • No stagnant water(mosquitoes breed).
  • Clean coolers regularly.
  • Wire screens or net on the doors and windows.
  • Prevent entry of flies, mosquitoes etc.
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Exercise

  • Regular exercise is important to be healthy.
  • It improves blood circulation and tone up our muscles.
  • Supplies more oxygen to brain.
  • Good exercises-playing out doors, cricket, football, hockey, yoga, swimming, cycling, walking, running.
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Adequate rest

  • Rest and sleep relax our muscles and proper functioning.
  • 6 to 8 hours sleep in a day.
  • Staying up late and watching television is a bad habit.
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Posture

  • Hold our body when we sit, stand or move.
  • Keep our back straight.
  • Leaning forward while reading put extra pressure on back and eyes.
posture
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