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Class V - science: Essential for life_Air and Water
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What is percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere?
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Q) Name the instrument which is used to measure atmospheric pressure?
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Q) Which gas is necessary for burning the fire?
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Q) Which of the following forms a layer of sediment in water?
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Q) Which tablets we add to water to kill germs?
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Q) Animals get nitrogen from the?
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Q) The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is?
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Q) As we go higher up in the atmosphere, the amount of air becomes?
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Q) Drinking water can be purified by?
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Q) The gas which supports burning is called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) How to remove soluble impurities?
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Q) What is the Boiling, Chlorination and Water purifier?
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Q) What is an atmosphere?
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Q) What is the Oxygen,Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide?
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Q) How does atmosphere helps us ?
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Q) Explain briefly about Sedimentation?
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Q) Explain briefly about Distillation?
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Q) Explain briefly about Evaporation?
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Q) Explain briefly about Boiling?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain about Atmosphere?
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Q) Explain the composition of Air?
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Q) What are the properties of air?
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Q) Explain about water?
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Q) What are the different methods of purifying water?
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Q) Explain in detail about Methods of purification?
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Q) Explain in detail about Filtration and Decantation?
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Q) Explain in detail about Evaporation and Distillation?
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Q) Explain in detail about Chlorination?
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  • Our earth is surrounded by a blanket of air called the atmosphere.
  • Extends to a height of about 300 km above the earth's surface.
  • Higher up in the atmosphere, the amount of air becomes lesser.
  • The gravity pulls the layers of air towards the surface of the earth.

How does atmosphere helps us ?

  • Helps in maintaining the temperature on earth for the survival of living things.
  • Burns the meteorites before they reach the earth's surface.

Composition Of Air

  • Mixture of many gases.
  • 78%     Nitrogen
  • 21%     Oxygen
  • 1%     other gases like neon, argon, carbon-dioxide, ozone
  • Contains water vapour and dust particles.
  • Meteorites are small rocks, moving in space.
  • They are harmful to us if hit the earth's surface.


  • We need oxygen for breathing, without oxygen nothing can be burnt.


  • All living things require nitrogen for their growth.
  • Cannot use nitrogen directly from the air.
  • Plants take nitrogen from the food they eat.
  • Keeps the process of burning under control.

Carbon Dioxide:-

  • Green plants use carbon dioxide gas to make their food.
  • Also used in fire extinguisher to put out fire.

Properties Of Air

  1. Air occupies space-activity.
  2. Air has weight.
  3. Air is necessary for burning.
  4. Air exerts pressure, any thing that has weight exerts pressure.

The pressure exerted by air is called atmospheric pressure.

It is measured with an instruments called barometer.



Second most important thing for our life is water.

All living things need water.

How do we get water:-

  • We get water from rivers, ponds, lakes and rain from ground by using wells, hand pumps ...etc.
  • The substances that make the water unfit to use are called impurities.

Removal of impurities from water insoluble impurities.


  • A mixture of water and insoluble impurities is allowed to stand undisturbed in a container for some time.
  • They insoluble impurities settle down at the bottom of the container.
  • This layer of impurities is called sediment.
  • When impurities settle down, clear water is left above the layer of impurities. This is called sedimentation.


  • The clean water after sedimentation is poured gently into a separate container without disturbing the sediment of impurities called decantation.
  • Alum - can improve the rate of sedimentation. This is known as loading.


  • Used to separate water from insoluble impurities like sand by using filter paper.


  • To filter a mixture of water and sand, we make a cone of filter paper and keep it inside a funnel.
  • The mixture is poured into the funnel.
  • The sand does not pass through the filter paper and remain behind on the filter paper. This is called residue.
  • Clear water which comes out of the filter paper and is collected in the flash below the funnel. This called filtrate.
  • This method of purifying water is called filtration.

How to remove soluble impurities:-


  • We heat the solution containing soluble impurities like salt.
  • Water gets evaporated (change into steam) and the impurities are left behind.


  • In evaporation, we get impurities and water mixes into air in the form of vapour.
  • In distillation impure water is heated a flash. On heating water changes into steam and impurities are left behind in the flash.
  • The steam passes through the condenser. Here it cools and changes into water. This water is pure which is collected in a separated flash.

Different Methods Of Purifying Water

Impure water is harmful to us. and leads to many diseases.

Must drink pure water.

Methods of purification

1) Boiling:-

  • Water is heated for 10min. Boiling kills the germs present in water. Simplest way to purify water.

2) Chlorination:-

  • Addition of chlorine tablets in water to kill Germs and to make water pure is called chlorination.

3) Water purifier:-

  • We get purified water from electrical water purifier.
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