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Class V - science: Earth_Sun and Moon
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) How many satellites are having the jupiter?
    
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Q) Which gas in the sun changes into helium?
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Q) In how many days does mercury complete one revolution?
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Q) What are two types of eclipses?
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Q) When moon is not visible to us , it is called?
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Q) The thickness of the inner core is?
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Q) The branch of science that deals with the study the heavenly bodies is known as?
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Q) The first man to step on the moon was?
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Q) Earth's surface has?
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Q) The outermost layer of the earth is called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What are the phases of moon?
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Q) What is the structure of moon?
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Q) What is sun?
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Q) How we land on the moon?
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Q) What is an artificial satellites?
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Q) Explain briefly about Eclipse?
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Q) Explain briefly about Waxing?
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Q) Explain briefly about Planets?
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Q) Explain briefly about Neptune?
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Q) Explain briefly about Uranus?
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Q) Explain briefly about Jupiter?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) explain about the solar systems?
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Q) Explain about earth?
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Q) Explain about planets?
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Q) Explain about moon?
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Q) Explain about Eclipse?
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Q) Explain in detail about Artificial satellites?
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Q) Explain in detail about Landing on the Moon?
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Q) Explain in detail about Neptune and Uranus?
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Q) Explain in detail about Jupiter and Saturn?
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Q) Explain in detail about Structure of Earth?
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Solar system

The sun and other heavenly bodies like planets, comets, asteroids and satellites of planets form solar system.

There are eight planets(including earth) move around the sun in fixed paths called orbits.

    The eight planets according to their distance from the sun
  1. Mercury
  2. Venus
  3. Earth
  4. Mars
  5. Jupiter
  6. Saturn
  7. Uranus
  8. Neptune
solarsystem

Earth

  • Only planet where life exists.
  • Earths atmosphere and water make life possible on the earth.
  • Atmosphere protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
  • The shape of our earth is like an orange.
  • Its surface has mountains, rivers, valleys and oceans.
  • It is belived that earth is very hot during early part of its formation took millions of years to cool down.
earth

Structure of Earth

The earth has an egg like structure.

Crust:-

  • The outermost layer of the earth is called crust.
  • Varies from 6 to 11km under oceans but under high mountains it is 70um thick.
  • Made up of rocks.
  • Contains continents and oceans.
  • Life exists on the crust.

Mantle:-

  • Middle layer lying between the crust and core of the earth.
  • Partially molten layer.
  • 2900km thick.
  • Contains lot of iron and magnesium.

Core:-

  • Core forms the center of the earth.
  • Divided into two parts called outer and inner core.
  • The outer core is about 2300km thick made up of molten iron and nickel.
  • Inner core is also made of iron and nickel.
  • It is about 1200km thick and is like a solid ball of metals.
earthstructure

Sun

  • Is a star at the centre of the solar system.
  • Nearest star to the earth. Diameter of about 1,392,000 km, 1.5million km away from the earth.
  • Sun is made up of hydrogen and helium 3/4 of sun's mass is hydrogen.
  • In sun hydrogen changes into helium this releases a lot of heat and light energy. This energy is called solar energy.
  • Sunlight also contains harmful ultra violet rays. They cause skin cancer.
  • There rays are stopped by a layer of atmosphere called ozone layer.
  • Due to increasing air pollutions ozone layer is getting destroyed and a hole is formed over Antarctica.
sun

Planets

Mercury:-

  • Smallest planet in the solar system.
  • Closest to sun.
  • 88 days to complete one revolution.
  • No satellite.
  • Visible just the sunrise in the eastern sky and just alter sunset in the western sky.
mercury

Venus:-

  • Is the brightest and hottest planet in the solar system.
  • No satellite.
  • Can see venus just 1 - 3 hours before sun rise in the eastern sky and just after sunset in the western sky.
  • Takes 224 days to revolve around the sun.
venus

Earth:-

  • 3rd planet of the solar system.
  • Only planet where life exists.
  • At right distance from the sun.
  • Has moderate temperature to support life.
  • Takes about 365 1/4 days to revolve around the sun.
earth1

Mars:-

  • It is about half the size of the earth.
  • Called the red planet because it has rusted iron dust in its soil.
  • Has two natural satellites.
  • Atmosphere mostly carbon dioxide.
mars

Jupiter:-

  • Largest planet of solar system.
  • Mass of Jupiter is 318 times more than the earth.
  • Has 63 satellites and takes about 12 earth years to revolve around sun.
jupiter

Saturn:-

  • Second largest planet in the solar system.
  • Has most visible and beautiful rings around it.
  • Called planet of rings.
  • Rings are made of ice and rock particles.
  • Called gaseous planet because made of gases.
  • Yellow in colour.
  • Has 62 satellities.
  • Takes 29 1/2 years to revolve around the sun.
saturn

Uranus:-

  • It is a gaseous planet.
  • Has 27 natural satellites(moon's).
  • Has methane in its atmosphere which gives blue green colour.
  • Takes 84 years to revolve around the sun.
  • Uranus has ring system.
uranus

Neptune:-

  • It is eighth and coldest planet.
  • Has ring system.
  • 165 years to complete one revolutions around sun.
  • Has 13 satellites.
neptune

Moon

  • Earth's only natural satellite revolves around the earth.
  • Take 27 days 8 hours (27,3 days) to complete one revolution.
  • Moon has no air, no atmosphere.
  • No life exists on moon.
  • It is 384, 403km away from earth.
  • Shine at night.
  • No light of its own, reflects light of the sun as moon light.

Surface of moon:-

  • Made up of mountains and craters.
  • Craters are saucer shaped holes that have been made when lumps of rocks & iron, Called meteorites hit the moon surface.
  • Flat plains & high mountains on the moon.
  • No air, no water & clouds to cover the moon.
  • During day it is very hot and night it is very cold.

Phases of Moon:-

  • Day to day change in shape of the moon as seen from the earth are called phases of moon.

New moon:-

  • Moon is between the earth and sun.
  • We cannot see the moon at all.
  • It is dark on the new moon day.

Crescent moon:-

  • Small sun-lit portion of moon's surface called crescent moon.

Half moon:-

  • When we see half moon its called half moon.

Gibbous moon:-

  • More than half of the moon is seen.

Full Moon:-

  • see complete moon called full moon.

Waxing:-

  • The increasing size of the lighted part of the moon.
  • After waxing size of the moon decreases again and appears as gibbous, half moon, crescent and new moon.
  • The decreasing size of the lighted part of the moon is called waxing.

Landing on the Moon

  • Apollo-XI was the space ship which took three American astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins.
  • First man to step on the moon on july 20 1969 was Neil Armstrong.
  • Brought rock samples and soil to the earth (Neil Armstrong & Edwin Aldrid).
  • Other persons
  • Yuri Gagarin ----- first man to go into the space.
  • Valentine Tereshkova ---- first women to go into the space.
  • Rakesh Sharma --- first Indian to go into the space.
  • Kalpana chawla ---- first Indian women to go into the space.

Eclipse

The shadows of the earth and moon produced by sunlight are called eclipse.

Lunar eclipse:-

  • Earth comes between sun and the moon in a straight line.
  • Stops the light of the sun from reaching the moon.
  • Hence moon cannot be seen partly or wholly. Called luncer eclipse.
lunareclipse

Total lunar eclipse:-

  • When moon is completely in the dark shadow of the earth.

Partial lunar eclipse:-

  • When the moon is partly hidden by the dark shadow of the earth.

Solar Eclipse:-

  • Moon comes between the sun and the earth.
  • The moon casts its shadow on the earth.
  • Certain parts of the earth cannot see the sun at all or see it only partially for some time, this is called solar eclipse.
solareclipse

Total solar eclipse:-

  • Moon hides the sun completely, no sun light reaches the earth and it becomes totally dark, even during the day time.

Partial solar eclipse:-

  • When moon hided the sun partially, it is called partial solar eclipse.

Artificial satellites

  • Man made satellites launched into space revolve around the earth called Artificial satellites.
  • Used for communications, weather, forecasting and navigation.
  • Some artificial satellites are
  • Sputnik - 1 Aryabhatta, INSAT, Kalpana -I , Euusa..etc
satellites
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