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Class V - Science: Safety measures

When is Safety needed?
  • We should take precautionary measures in all the places like factories, cinema halls, offices, in a journey as well as at home.
  • Offices have arrangements to prevent fire accidents. More safety measures should be taken up where there is risk of accidents.
  • We should follow safety measures at home also. Very small children, usually put whatever things they see, in their mouth. Parents should take care that dangerous things are not within the reach of small children.
  • Children get injured if they play with knives, screwdrivers, nails, pins, alpins etc. Similarly children are prone to fire and water accidents.
  • Electrical appliances and gas cylinders are dangerous both to elders as well as children and should be handled carefully
  • There are many things that you use at home, in the school and on the road. However, if you do not use these things carefully, you may hurt yourself. You should always try to be safe and do not hurt yourself or others .
  • Safety means staying away from danger or injury. For this, you have to follow some safety rules .

At Home:

  • Do not climb on shelves. You may fall down along with a few heavy things. Ask an adult to help you.
  • Safety
  • Do not touch electric wires, switches and plugs. It can be dangerous. You may get a shock.
  • Safety
  • Do not play with sharp objects like scissors, knives or tools. You may get a cut if you are not careful.
  • Safety
  • Do not lean out of the window or the balcony. You may lose your balance and fall down.
  • Safety
  • Do not play near fire or with matchsticks. Burns caused by fire are painful. When the stove is on, make sure to stay away from it.
  • Safety

In the School:

  • Do not run around in the classroom. You might hit the desks and hurt yourself. When walking in the corridors, keep to a side.
  • Children should go in groups to school or they should be accompanied by the elders.
  • Safety
  • Do not jump or run on the staircase. A fall from the staircase could be very painful.
  • Safety
  • Do not poke anyone with pencils or any sharp objects, they can get seriously hurt.
  • Safety
  • When in school or on a school picnic, always be with your teachers and classmates. You will be safe.
  • Safety
  • Never talk to strangers or take anything from them near the school gate. Never go anywhere with a stranger. It is very dangerous.
  • They should not take to or go with strangers.
  • Sometimes people who kidnap children give drugged biscuits or chocolates to the children.They should not take any food item from the strangers.
  • They should always have details of the house address,phone number etc.
  • In case the children are alone, they should inform the parents,teachers or persons known to them.
  • If they do not have phone numbers they should take the help of the policeman or can ask the nearby shopkeeper to inform their parents.

In the School Bus:

  • Stand in a queue while getting into a bus.
  • Remain seated inside a moving bus.
  • Never put your hand or head out of the bus window.
  • Do not throw things out of the school bus.
  • Do not disturb the bus driver. He must drive carefully to avoid accidents.
  • Do not push each other while getting in or out of the bus.
  • Do not try to climb into a moving bus.
  • Safety

On the Road:

  • In cities, children meet with accidents while crossing the road.We should not cross the roads at such places.
  • We must cross the road only at Zebra crossing and where there are traffic signals.
  • While going in city buses we should get in or get down only when the bus stops completely.
  • Do not run or play on the road. You can get hit by a moving vehicle.
  • Always walk on the footpath. There are no moving vehicles on it.
  • Always use the Zebra crossing for crossing the road. Look both ways before you cross.

Crowded places need safety measures. There is a possibility of accidents in the places where thousands of people gather for meetings and celebrations.Hence,Precautionary measures are to be taken up.


Traffic Light Signal:

  • When the traffic light is red, it indicates 'stop'.
  • When the traffic light is yellow, it indicates 'Be Alert'.
  • when the traffic light is green, it indicates 'Go'.

In the Playground:

Sometimes, accidents happen because of the things we do. Sitting on the railings, playing on the roads or on bunds of tanks, getting down from a moving bus, travelling more than the capacity of a vehicle etc are the causes of accidents.The measures taken to avoid accidents are called 'Safety Measures' safety measures are essential daily rather than on occasions like playing or travelling.

  • Do not play on the road. Always play in the playground. Wear your shoes while playing.
  • Whenever you or any of your friends get hurt, call your parents or your teacher without losing time. They will attend to your injuries immediately. This is called first aid.
Preventions of Accidents

Do not talk while driving
Fire accidents
Road accidents
Travelling in the Bus

  • We should take measures to prevent fire accidents. Electrical appliances, blasting of gas cylinders cause fire accidents.
  • Throwing burning cigarette or matchstick near petrol / diesel bunks, in grass lands or in forests cause fire accidents.
  • We whould not use lift during a fire accident. Fire engine controls the fire during the accident.
  • A pipe must be fixed and closed after a bore well is dug. A danger sign must be kept. There is a danger of children and elders falling into the open manholes.
  • There are people who get lost after falling into the manholes, because, they could not see the open man holes when the roads were flooded with water in rainy season.
  • You should inform the Municipal Corporation Personnel if you find open manholes in the city. Sufficient care must be taken while travelling in autos, buses trains etc. you should neither travel more than the capacity nor sit on the top of the vehicles.
  • Cellphones must not be used while driving. Road rules must be followed. People riding motorcycles must wear helmets. People travelling in cars must wear seat belt. As overspeeding is one of the reasons for accidents we should drive with in the speed limit. We should not drive fast to over take the vehicles.
What type of safety measures are needed?

Crowded places need safety measures. There is a possibility of accidents in the places where thousands of people gather for jataras, pushkaras, meetings and celebrations. Hence, Precautionary measures are to be taken up.

Natural Calamities
Water Accidents:
  • There is a lot of importance of water and water resources in our life.
  • We need to go near water resources very often. It is dangerous to get into the water without knowing how to swim.
  • We should not get into the water without the knowledge of swimming. Even if we know swimming, we should not try to swim or cross rivers,lakes and seas without knowing their depth.
  • Villages have big wells, where people bathe. It is dangerous for non-swimmers to bathe in these wells.
Overload Boat

Overload Boat

  • As shown in the above figure,in some places rivers and canals are crossed with the help of boats.
  • Accidents may happen if more people get in to the boat, we must learn swimming to save our lives. Proper care must be taken at the time of picnics.
  • When the earth shakes violently we call it as earthquake.
  • The tremors or vibrations of the earth are noted on a Richter scale.
  • If the intensity of these vibrations cross seven points, earthquakes occur.
  • The most servere earthquakes in India occured, in Lathur district of Maharashtra in 1993 and in Bhuj near kutch in Gujarat in 2001. Thousands were killed and many more lost their shelters due to these earthquakes. There was property loss. Government undertook many activities to help the victims of earthquake. People of the country extended their cooperation through donations.
Maharashtra Earthquake in 1993
Maharashtra Earthquake in 1993
Maharashtra Earthquake in 2001
Maharashtra Earthquake in 2001
Things to be done during earth quakes:
  • Do not move here and there, sit near the objects that do not move easily keeping four head between your hands.
  • Be away from breakable things like mirrors windows etc.
  • People who live in multistoreyed buildings shouldn't use lift.
  • If you are out, stand away from the buildings bridges,trees etc.
  • Observe whether there are any chances of trees getting uprooted, buildings and pillars collapsed. Only then go near them.
  • Try to help the injured people.
    Sometimes, due to sudden and heavy rains water accumulates in rivers and canals and they overflow. At times seas also overflow. Houses, roads, trees and pillars drown or get carried away. Such a situation is called flood.
  • People become shelterless because of floods. Things in the houses get drowned in water. There will be no water to drink or food to eat. Small children, old people and animals drown in water. Contagious diseases like choloera, malaria etc. spread. Neither clothes are available nor any shelter for protection.


Things to be done at the time of Floods:
  • Keep track of government warnings through radio and T.V.
  • If you have to walk in the flood, do so by checking the way with the help of a long stick.
  • Switch of all electricity supply.
  • Go to the camps arranged by the government as a part of precautionary measure.Important things like clothes, bedsheets must be taken along.
  • Keep the things in the house in attics or high and dry places.
  • Be careful while drinking water and eating food. Drink only chlorinated water.
  • Do not neglect the warnings from the government.
First Aid
  • Accidents may happen even after taking precautionary measures.
  • First aid must be provided in such situtaitons. Only those who know how to give first aid, must try it.
  • The aid help given to the patient or the vicitm before taking him/her to the doctor is called first aid. Along with providing proper treatment to save their lives.
Have you ever done first aid? When and Where, What did you do?

Every school must have a first aid box.

What should be there in that box?

First aid must be given immediately after the accidents. Care must be taken to see that all the things needed are there in the box. Buses also have first aid boxes, have you observed?

What first aid is usually given to the injuries in school or at home?

People who give first aid must wash their hands and if possible, wear gloves before cleaning the wounds. We should not directly use antiseptic lotions like dettol.

They should be added to water and then used to clean the wounds. Ointment must be applied to the wound, sufficient cotton must be put on it and then it should be plastered with a guaze. In case of sprains ice must be applied after it is wrapped up in polythene covers. Do not apply ice directly.

Do you know?
The first hour after the accident is known as the golden hour because life can be saved by giving proper treatment in the first hour.

Life saving principles:
  • Make the patient lie on the back and loosen the clothes, remove blocks in the air passage. Bend the head to a side as per the situation.
  • Check whether the person is breathing. Try to provide artificial respiration, except in case of poisoning, acid attack and vomitings.
  • Observe the heart beat. If there is no response, press the chest with your palms.
Who helps?
  • We should dial 108 in case of fire accident, road accident and natural calamities.
  • This is a free service. If you dail 108, they will inform fire engines, ambulance or police as per the need.
  • They help immediately, so everyone should take safety measures within one's reach to prevent accidents and ill health.
  • Give first aid when necessary. Use the facilities provided by government. Learn about first aid and use this knowledge as the situation demands.
  • We should not neglect the road accidents. Many people do not care for the wounded people. This is highly objectionable and unpardonable crime. We or our friends and relatives also may meet with accident.
Measures to be taken

In case of burns
  • Keep the burnt part under cold running water for 15-20 minutes.
  • If the burns are too severe, only then ointment must be applied.
  • Remember never pinch the blisters, never tie a bandage, never rub, never apply ice. Do not run in case of fire accidents, but stop, drop and roll.
In case of sprains
  • Do not rub the ointment on the sprain. Let the sprained part rest.
  • Apply ice wrapped in a thick cloth or polythene cover.
  • Tie a crape bandage available in medical shops. Untie only at bed time. Keep the sprained part up.
In case of poisoning
  • Give lots of water to the person to decrease the intensity / severity of the poison before taking the person to the hospital.
  • If the person either vomits or become unconscious, it indicates a medical emergency and doctor's help is be needed immediately.
In case of unconsiciousness
  • The unconscious person should be made to lie down on a side, lift the head while taking to the hospital.
  • You should not take him / her lying down on his / her back as there is the risk of the tongue blocking the respiration.
In case of heart attack
  • Pain in the chest is thought to be heart attack.
  • If a person feels pinpricking sensation in the chest and pain in any other part of the body, then we can consider it as heart attack.
  • Intense sweating, nausea and chest pain indicate heart attack.
  • When there are no medicines available we should make the person sit, ask him to cough and take him to the hospital. Do not let him sleep, walk or stand.
In case of fracture
  • See that the fractured part is not moved while taking the patient to the hospital
In case of dog bite
  • Wash the bitten area (monkeys bite, cats bite etc) with soap. But do not cover the wound with cloth or bandage.
In case of snake bite
  • Most of the snakes are not poisonous. A person bitten by snake can collapse due to fear.
  • We should take steps to reduce the person's fear. We should not move the bitten parts.
  • We should take care that the person does not become unconscious.
In case of sun stroke
  • Not everyone who moves in the sun will suffer from sun stroke.
  • The symptoms of sunstroke are high temperature, nausea, vommitings and severe headache.
  • Do not allow the person to drink water. Wipe the person's body with a cloth dipped in the cold water (till the body regains normal temperature).
  • Then we should give ORS solution or electrol water.
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