Mind Maps

Class V - Science: Our body parts - Sense organs


The organs which are seen outside the body are called external organs.With the help of these organs we can perform many activities at home, outside and at school such as playing, writing, reading and also odd jobs at home. We perform all these activities with the help of these organs.

  • We make use of more than one organ to perform various activities. For this we need co-ordination between the organs
  • senseorgans
Sense Organs
  • Eyes,Ears,Nose,Tongue and Skin help us to know about our surroundings and gain knowledge of the different things hence they are called the Sense Organs.
The Eyes:
  • Your eyes are an important part of your health.
  • we have two eyes on our face.we can see the things around us with our eyes.
  • The eyes are small compared with most organs, but their structure is incredibly complex.
  • All parts of the eye are extremely delicate, so our bodies protect them in several ways.
Intresting Fact:
  • Can you reach your school closing your eyes?Think. Can you do your routine work without seeing?
  • The answer is "No",we cant do anything without watching.So the eyes are very important,they paly a very important role in our body
  • Now, you know how important our eyes are! Therefore, we must take proper care of them.
Precautions to be taken to protect our eyes:
  • We enjoy observing the scenic beauty of nature through our eyes.Do you know what are the precautions to be taken,to protect our eyes?
  • Always read in sufficient light (not very bright or dim light).
  • See that while reading,the distance between the book and your eyes is about 30 centimeters.
  • Do not read while travelling in a bus or train and other vehicles.
  • We must wash our eyes daily with cold water.
  • Always watch the television with sufficient light in the room.We must not watch T.V. for long and from very near.
  • "If you are not able to see the letters properly on the black board you must inform your parents and teachers."
  • Do not rub your eyes.
  • Do not use the hand kerchief and towels used by the persons suffering with eye infections like conjunctivities etc.
  • Consult an eye specialist / doctor if irritation, redness, watering and burning sensation of eyes persists or while reading if you are not able to see the letters clearly and properly.
  • The doctor who treats the disorders and diseases of the eyes is known as "Ophthamologist" or "Eye Specialist".

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Food we need to eat when we have eye disorders

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Reading Book
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Do not read books when the light is Dim or more Bright
  • As all of you know we can listen to the sounds with the help of Ears, the sense organ!
  • If a man can not hear from his birth, he cannot speak also. As they are not able to hear the other person talking, they do not know what and how to speak. Hence they do not speak.
  • People like this, use sign language i.e., through symbols and gestures message is Conveyed
  • We feel some sounds to be pleasant compared to the other sounds we hear while some sounds are harsh. Pleasant music, melodious songs make us feel happy. Listen to the soft and melodious songs for a span of 15 minutes. How do you feel? Harsh sounds that exceed the audible range cause sound pollution.
  • We are able to hear the pleasant sounds that make us feel happy with the help of our ears only. As ears are very delicate organs, we must take special care to protect them. Blowing vehicles horn loudly and repeatedly causes inconvenience to others. Talking to others on cellphones for long hours is to be avoided. Using cell phones extensively is dangerous.
  • If sweating is seen besidethe ear it is very dangerous.
  • The eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin help us to know everything about our surroundings. They are our Sense Organs

Precautions to be taken to protect our ears:
  • Close the ears if loud and harsh sounds are heard.
  • Take proper care to prevent water entering into ears, clean your ears with a clean cotton cloth.
    Cleaning Ears
  • Do not use hairpins or match sticks to clean the ears.
  • If there is pain in your ears or for other ear problems you must consult a doctor immediately.
  • Do not use castor oil or other oils for the ears.
The doctor who treats the problems of ears, nose and throat is called as an ENT doctor or ENT Specialist.
Intresting Fact:

Bat is a Nocturnal mammal (active during the night).It knows its path by making sounds. It identifies objects on its way, when sound waves produced by it reflects back and reaches it.The sounds echo from the obstacles and thus changes its path.


As you all know eyes help us to see, ears help us to hear. In the same way, nose helps us to smell! We can identify many things through smell.

We cannot live for a long time if don't breath air. We breathe in and breathe out air through our nose. This is called Respiration. Breathing in air through nostrils into our lungs is known as "Inhalation", breathing out air is called "Exhalation".

We must always keep our nose clean. Do not insert slate pencils, pencils, pieces of chalk, sticks, fingers into your nostrils. Consult a doctor if small pebbles or things enter your nostrils and if breathing is difficult or painful.

  • As you all know tongue helps us to speak, to swallow food and to know the taste of food! There are taste buds on our tongue and they help us to know the tastes of the food we eat.
  • We should keep our mouth clean. We should rinse our mouth with water before and after eating.
  • If we do not rinse, germs may attack and cavities develop in our teeth and thus teeth may decay and fall and results in bad breath.
  • Hence, we should brush our teeth and also clean the tongue daily in the morning. We should also clean our tongue and brush our teeth before going to bed at night.
  • We identify the different tastes with our tongue. Do we take the help of tongue alone while taking in the food?
  • There are teeth also along with the tongue!
  • We chew food with the help of teeth when we eat. What happens when we chew the food! Think.
  • We know the taste of food. When we chew the food with our teeth, it mixes with the saliva in our mouth and thus the taste is known.
  • Poeple who lose their teeth, cannot chew the food. Hence they do not know the complete taste of food. Therefore, we must take care of our teeth.
  • When food is chewed, it breaks into small pieces and combines or mixes throughly with saliva and thus gives us the taste. Hence we should take proper care to protect our teeth as they help in chewing and tasting the food
Type of Teeth
  • There are four different types of teeth, for biting, tearing, chewing and grinding the chewed food.
  • Teeth help us to bite and chew the food and to speak clearly.
  • The teeth that appear in children from 6th or 7th month onwards, for the first time are called Milk teeth.
  • They fall off at the age of 8 or 9 years. In their place new, strong and big teeth grow and are known as Permanent teeth.
  • If we loose this teeth we cannot get back the new one's.
  • Hence, if we do not brush our teeth properly they decay and we get bad breath from the mouth. If this happens then we cannot eat the food we like and we even cannot chew properly.
Arrangement of Teeth
Cleanliness of Teeth:
  • After eating bits of food particles remain struck between the teeth and they cause tooth decay.
  • If they remain on the tooth, harmful bacteria grow and produce harmful acids.
  • As a result of this cavities are formed. The colour of the teeth changes to yellow and black.
  • The gums swell and bleed resulting in tooth ache. Hence, we should brush our teeth properly twice a day.
  • Do not use brick or coal powder, which are coarse and damage the gum's & teeth. If we use them, the outer cover / layer of tooth enamel is damaged.
  • If we eat too many sweets or too cold food items then also the enamel gets damaged. If the enamel is damaged, then we feel pain when we eat cold food or drink water.

How should we take care of our teeth?
  • Brush twice a day, that is every morning and every night, before going to bed.
  • After brushing the teeth, rub the teeth and the gums with your finger and also rinse your mouth with water.
  • Rinse your mouth with water after eating or drinking.This helps in washing away the bits of food particles stuck on and between the teeth.Rinse twice or thrice in a day.
  • Brush the teeth of the upper jaw from up to down and lower jaw teeth from down to up.
  • Brush the teeth from all sides that is up, down, inside, outside, leftside, and rightside, each and every tooth must be brushed properly and in circular motion.
  • If the teeth are not properly brushed plaque deposits on the teeth and results in tooth decay.
  • This causes tooth ache. In this case the dentist pulls out the decayed tooth. New tooth do not grow in its place. If we do not have teeth we can not eat solid foods.
The doctor who treats the diseases of teeth is called a "Dentist".
  • Skin protects all parts of our body. It is the sense organ for touch. We can feel heat, hardness, softness, coldness etc., through skin.
  • We shake hands when we meet our friends. At home and school or while travelling we hold many things. Due to this micro organisms enter our palms.
  • We should wash our hands properly with soap before eating, lest the dust and microbes enter our body through food. This causes ill health and diseases.
  • Do not touch, eat food without washing the hands with soap at school and at home. Wash your hands after toilet.
  • Skin is affected first by the changes in the surroundings. If we protect our skin, the skin protects us.
  • Skin protects the internal organs from outside the environment. Skin senses the heat, cold and pain.
  • Due to the ridges and grooves present in the skin of the palm, finger prints are formed.
  • Take your finger prints and that of your friends on a white paper and observe them. Are they similar? No two persons will have the same finger prints in this world. Hand also has lines on the palm.

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Lines on Skin
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