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Class IX - science: Why do we fall ill?
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) The state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially is known as?
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Q) The health of all organisms will depend on?
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Q) Social equality and harmony are necessary for ?
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Q) The state of absence of any kind discomfort or derangement of functioning of body is?
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Q) What makes up physiological systems or organ systems that carry out body functions?
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Q) Parkinson's involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called?
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Q) Which is necessary for individual health?
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Q) Some diseases can last for a long time, even as much as a lifetime and are called?
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Q) What is the state of being uncomfortable called?
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Q) Give an example of a communicable disease?
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Q) An active immune system recruits many cells to the affected tissue to kill off the disease-causing microbes. This process is called?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) Write about Chronic Diseases And Poor Health?
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Q) What are the four Common Diseases of Chronic Diseases?
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Q) What are the causes of diseases?
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Q) Write about Principles Of Treatment?
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Q) Explain about principles of prevention of diseases?
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Q) State two conditions for good health.?
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Q) From the following health issues which one do you think would affect your health severely in the long run? a) Jaundice b) Hairfall c) Acne Give reasons.
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) What is Parkinsons Disease?
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Q) Give a list of Acute And Chronic Diseases?
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Q) Write about Infectious And Non-Infectious Causes of diseases?
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Q) What are Infectious Diseases?
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Q) What is Organ-Specific And Tissue Specific Manifestations?
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Q) Explain the Principles Of Treatment?
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Q) Explain the means Of spread of diseases?
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Q) Explain the Diseases and their Causes?
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Q) What are the various ways through which infectious diseases are transmitted?
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Q) What precautionary measures can you take in school to mitigate the spread of diseases?
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Introduction

The Significance Of Health "Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially".

Why Do We Fall Ill
Personal And Community Issues Both Matter For Health

The health of all organisms will depend on their surroundings or their environment. The environment includes the physical environment.So for example,health is at risk in a cyclone in many ways.
Our social environment, therefore, is an important factor in our individual health. We live in villages, towns or cities. In such places, even our physical environment is decided by our social environment. Therefore, public cleanliness is important for individual health.
We need to be happy in order to be truly healthy, and if we mistreat each other and are afraid of each other, we cannot be happy or healthy. Social equality and harmony are therefore necessary for individual health.

Why Do We Fall Ill
Distinctions Between 'healthy' And 'disease Free'

Disease means being uncomfortable.We talk of disease when we can find a specific and particular cause for discomfort. To have the opportunity to realise the unique potential in all of us is also necessary for real health.

Health
Disease Free
  • It is a state of physical,mental and social wellbeing.
  • It refers not only to the individual but also its social and community environment
  • A healthy person is able to perform normal under given situation.
  • For e.g.being able to do graceful positions while dancing.(for a dancer)
  • It is a state of absence of any kind discomfort or derangement of functioning of body.
  • It refer to individual
  • A Disease free person may or may not be healthy.
  • For e.g.free of disease but not able to stretch body properly while dancing.(for a dancer)
Disease and Its Causes

Tissues make up physiological systems or organ systems that carry out body functions. Each of the organ systems has specific organs as its parts, and it has particular functions.
When there is a disease, either the functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body will change for the worse. These changes give rise to symptoms and signs of disease.
Symptoms of disease are the things we feel as being wrong. When there is a disease, either the functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body will change for the worse. These changes give rise to symptoms and signs of disease.

What is Parkinson's Disease?

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time. Nearly one million people in the US are living with Parkinson's disease.
The cause is unknown, and although there is presently no cure, there are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage its symptoms.

Why Do We Fall Ill

Parkinson's involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinson's primarily affects neurons in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra.
Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses,the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally.
The specific group of symptoms that an individual experiences varies from person to person. Primary motor signs of Parkinson's disease include the following.

  • tremor of the hands, arms, legs, jaw and face
  • bradykinesia or slowness of movement
  • rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk
  • postural instability or impaired balance and coordination
Acute And Chronic Diseases

Some diseases last for only very short periods of time, and these are called acute diseases. Other ailments can last for a long time,even as much as a lifetime and are called chronic diseases. An example is the infection causing elephantiasis, which is very common in some parts of India.

Acute Disease Chronic Disease(long-term)
Beginning Rapid Gradual
cause Usuallyone Many
Duration Short Indefinite
Diagnosis Commonly accurate Often uncertain,especially early on
Diagnostic Testa Often decisive Often of limited value
Treatment Cure Common Cure rare
Role of Professional Select and conduct Teacher and therapy partner
Role of patient Follow orders Partner of health professionals,responsible for daily management.

Chronic Diseases And Poor Health

An acute disease, which is over very soon,will not have time to cause major effects on general health, while a chronic disease will do so. If we get infected with a chronic disease such as tuberculosis of the lungs, then being ill over the years does make us lose weight and feel tired all the time.
We are likely to have prolonged general poor health if we have a chronic disease. Chronic diseases therefore, have very drastic long-term effects on people's health as compared to acute diseases.

Four Common Diseases of Chronic Diseases

    Health Behaviors

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Poor nutrition
  • Tabacco use
  • Excessive alchol consumption
Causes Of Diseases

If there is a baby suffering from loose motions, we can say that the cause of the loose motions is an infection with a virus. It will now be obvious that all diseases will have immediate causes and contributory causes. Also, most diseases will have many causes, rather than one single cause.

Why Do We Fall Ill
Infectious And Non-Infectious Causes

Diseases where microbes are the immediate causes are called infectious diseases. This is because the microbes can spread in the community and the diseases they cause will spread with them.
On the other hand,there are also diseases that are not caused by infectious agents. Their causes vary, but they are not external causes like microbes that can spread in the community.Instead,these are mostly internal,non-infectious causes.
The ways in which diseases spread and the ways in which they can be treated and prevented at the community level would be different for different diseases. This would depend a lot on whether the immediate causes are infectious or non-infectious.

Why Do We Fall Ill
Infectious Diseases

Organisms that can cause disease are found in a wide range of such categories of classification. Some of them are viruses, some are bacteria, some are fungi, some are single-celled animals or protozoans.
Common examples of diseases caused by viruses are the common cold, influenza, dengue fever and AIDS.
Diseases like typhoid fever,cholera,tuberculosis and anthrax are caused by bacteria.Many common skin infections are caused by different kinds of fungi.Protozoan microbes cause many familiar diseases such as malaria and kalaazar.

Means Of Spread

Many microbial agents can commonly move from an affected person to someone else in a variety of ways. In other words, they can be 'communicated' and so are also called communicable diseases.
communicable diseases.Such disease causing microbes can spread through the air. Diseases can also be spread through water. This occurs if the excreta from someone suffering from an infectious gut disease, such as cholera,get mixed with the drinking water used by the people.
Mosquitoes feed on many warm-blooded animals, including us. In this way, they can transfer diseases from one person to another.

Why Do We Fall Ill
Organ-Specific And Tissue Specific Manifestations

The signs and symptoms of a disease will thus depend on the tissue or organ which the microbe targets. If the lungs are the targets, then symptoms will be cough and breathlessness.
An active immune system recruits many cells to the affected tissue to kill off the disease-causing microbes. This process is called inflammation.
It is also important to remember that the severity of disease manifestations depend on the number of microbes in the body.If the number of microbes is very small,the disease manifestations may be minor or unnoticed. But if the number is of the same microbe large,the disease can be severe enough to be life-threatening.

To cause an infection, microbes must enter our bodies. The site at which they enter is known as the portal of entry.
Microbes can enter the body through the four sites listed below:

  • Respiratory tract (mouth and nose) e.g. Influenza virus which causes the flu
  • Gastrointestinal tract (mouth oral cavity) e.g. Vibrio cholerae which causes cholera
  • Urogenital tract e.g. Escherichia coli which causes cystitis
  • Breaks in the skin surface e.g. Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus
  • Like Japanese Encephalitis in this microbe enters through blood vessels and brain is affected .
Principles Of Treatment

    There are two ways to treat an infectious disease.
  • One would be to reduce the effects of the disease
  • And the other to kill the cause of the disease. For the first we can provide treatment that will reduce the symptoms.

Principles

  • Ask:Regular assessment and function.
  • Believe:Impact on life,intensity of pain.
  • Choose:Therapies appropriate for patient.
  • Deliver:Coordinating therapies(meditation,diagnostics,structural interventions).
  • Empower:Patient and support system to effect functional change.
Principles Of Prevention

There are three limitations of this approach to dealing with infectious disease.

  • The first is that once someone has a disease, their body functions are damaged and may never recover completely.
  • The second is that treatment will take time, which means that someone suffering from a disease is likely to be bedridden for some time even if we can give proper treatment.
  • The third is that the person suffering from an infectious disease can serve as the source from where the infection may spread to other people. This leads to the multiplication of the above difficulties.
  • It is because of such reasons that prevention of diseases is better than their cure.
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