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Class IV - social: Soils of India
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) What is an important natural resource?

Q) Which soil contains mostly sand?

Q) What is the most important method of preventing soil erosion?

Q) Which soil is very rich in humus?

Q) Which soil is found in the Western Ghats and parts of Tamil Nadu?

Short Answer Questions:
Q) Why is soil considered to be an important natural resource?

Q) What is soil erosion?

Q) How is soil made?

Q) What makes desert soil infertile?

Q) What is afforestation?

Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain briefly about the types of soil?

Q) What is soil erosion? How does it harm us? How can it be prevented?

Q) How is black soil formed? In which parts of India do we find it?

Q) Explain briefly about Alluvial soil and Black soil?

Q) Explain briefly about Red soil and Laterite soil?

Importance of Soil
  • Plants grow in soil. Animals depend on plants for their food. Thus all the living things depend on the soil for their food.
  • In villages people build houses of mud, pots, etc with soil.
  • We make cloth from plants like cotton and jute.
  • Most people in India depend on agriculture for their livelihood.So, soil is one of the most important natural resources.
Soils of India
Formation of Soil
  • Rocks on the Earth are broken down into small pebbles by rain, flowing water etc. These pebbles break down further to form tiny pieces of soil.
  • Wind, rain and rivers carry the soil to different places.
  • Remains of dead plants and animals mix with the soil to make it fertile.
  • It takes more than a hundred years for nature to make just one centimeter of soil.
Types of Soils

Alluvial soil:-

  1. The rivers of the northern plains bring with them large quantities of silt or alluvium. This gets deposited on the land around the river. This is called the alluvial soil.
  2. It is very fertile soil.
  3. It is found in the northern plains and in the deltas of deccan plateau.
Soils of India

Black soil:-

  1. Black soil is formed from the lava that comes from the volcanoes.
  2. It is found in the central and north-western parts of the southern plateau.
  3. Most of the Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, and parts of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and Rajasthan have this soil.
Soils of India

Red soil:-

  1. The rest of the southern plateau contains soil that is red in colour.
  2. It is not as fertile as black soil, but can be made fertile by adding manure.
  3. It is good for crops such as jowar, bajra and groundnut.
Soils of India

Laterite soil:-

  1. This type of soil is found in the Western Ghats and parts of Tamil Nadu.
  2. It is rich in iron and aluminium and is red in colour.
  3. It is good for crops such as tea, coffee, spices, coconut and rubber.
Soils of India

Desert soil:-

  1. Desert soil contains mostly sand.
  2. It is found mainly in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  3. Sandy soil cannot hold much water. It is, therefore, not fertile.
Soils of India

Mountain soil:-

  1. Mountain soil is very rich in humus.
  2. Humus is the remains of dead plants and animals.
  3. The minerals present in the humus make the soil very fertile.
  4. Mountain soil is found in the Himalayan region, and the north-eastern parts of the India.
  5. The soil is very good for growing fruits such as apple, pear, peach and plum.
Soils of India
Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion:-

  • The fertile top layer of the soil is carried away by wind and water to a different place. This is called soil erosion.
  • It makes the soil infertile.
  • Roots of the plants hold the soil together and prevent erosion.
  • Planting trees of afforestation , is the most important method of preventing soil erosion.
  • Covering of bare farmland with grass or dried vegetation, terrace farming in hills and buildings, embankments along river banks are some other methods to prevent soil erosion.
  • We cut trees for fuels and to build farms, cities and roads. This is called deforestation. Deforestation causes soil erosion.
Soils of India
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