Q) What are dug out from the Earth?
Q) What are rocks rich in minerals that give metals such as iron, copper?
Q) Which metal is used in constructing buildings and bridges?
Q) Which gas is found along with petroleum in some oil wells?
Q) What is the first metal used by humans to make tools and utensils?
Q) What are ores?
Q) What are the uses of iron?
Q) Where is copper mainly found in India? In which industry is copper mainly used?
Q) What is exhaustible and Inexhaustible resources?
Q) What are the uses of Coal and Petroleum?
Q) Why is it important to conserve our mineral resources?
Q) Explain briefly about the Metals?
Q) Explain briefly about the Non-Metals?
Q) How many types of materials we get from rocks? Explain them with Examples?
Q) How petroleum is Refined? What are petroleum refineries?
- Things around us are made up of different types of materials.
- We get many of these materials from rocks.
- Rock are made up of different types of minerals.
- Minerals are naturally occurring substances, such as iron ore, coal or petroleum that are obtained by mining or drilling.
- Digging out minerals from the surface of the Earth is called mining.
- The holes dug in the Earth to take out minerals are called mines.
- Some mines are very deep. Others are near the surface.
Types of Materials:
- The materials we get from rocks are of two types: - metals and non-metals.
- Things such as utensils, pins, nails, bodies of cars etc are made up of hard shining materials. They are called metals.
- Iron, copper, gold and aluminum are metals.
- Minerals from which metals are obtained are called ores.
- Things such as petrol, coal, mica and limestone are not hard and shiny like metals. They are called non-metals.
- Iron is one of the most useful metals.
- It is used to make utensils, machines, tools, bridges, buildings, railway engines and coaches, and many other things.
- In India, iron ore is found in large quantities in Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- Pure iron is soft, so it is usually used in the form of steel.
- Iron ore is converted into iron and steel in iron and steel plants.
- These plants are located in Jamshedpur and Bokaro in Jharkhand, Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh, and Durgapur in West Bengal.
- Copper was the first metal used by humans to make tools and utensils.
- It is also used by the electrical industry, as electricity flows easily through copper.
- Electric wires in our homes are made of copper.
- In India, copper ore is mainly found in Rajasthan and Jharkhand.
- Aluminum is a light metal.
- It also does not rust, unlike iron, which is heavy and rusts when exposed to air.
- It is mainly used to make bodies of aircrafts and car.
- It is also used to make utensils and electric wires.
- Aluminum ore is found in many states of India.
- Gold is used to make ornaments.
- It is found in kolar mines in Karnataka.
- Manganese, silver, zinc and nickel, are some other metals found in India.
- Coal is formed from the remains of plants that died millions of years ago.
- Coal is classified as a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
- It is an important fuel, and provides us with energy.
- It is used to generate electricity, to run factories and as a domestic fuel.
- It is mainly found in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal.
Crude Oil or Petroleum
- It is a fossil fuel formed over millions of years from the dead remains of sea animals.
- It is an important source of energy.
- We get fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene and cooking gas from petroleum.
- We also get a number of other things from petroleum, such as lubricants, plastics and cosmetics.
- Petroleum is found deep under the sea. These deep wells are called oil wells.
- They are drilled to pump out the petroleum.
- In India, it is found in Assam, Gujarat and under the sea in Bombay High, near Mumbai.
- Recently, it is also found in Rajasthan and the Krishna - Godavari basin in the Bay of Bengal.
- Petroleum is separated into different products in petroleum refineries.
- This process is called refining of petroleum.
- In India, Mumbai, Cochin, Mathura, Barauni and Haldia have the petroleum refineries.
- Two new refineries are in Vadinar and Jamnagar in Gujarat.
- Natural gas is found along with petroleum in some oil wells. It is mainly used as a fuel.
Some other Non-Metals in India are:-
- Mica, limestone and rock salt.
- The mineral resources of the Earth are limited.
- Mineral fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas take millions of years to form.
- We are using these resources too fast. If we continue to do so, it will finish soon.
- Resources that are gone forever, once used, are known as exhaustible resources.
- Our mineral resources are exhaustible.
- Therefore, we should conserve or save them.
- We should use more inexhaustible resources of energy such as solar, wind and water energy.