Q) What are the four major landforms?
Q) What are the different types of mountains?
Q) Which areas are rich in mineral deposits?
Q) Which areas are most productive for farming?
Q) Tibetian Plateau is also known as ?
Q) What are landforms? Name them?
Q) What are mountain ranges?
Q) What are Valleys?
Q) What are Passes?
Q) What is a bay?
Q) Expalin briefly about mountains?
Q) Explain briefly about water bodies?
Q) Explain briefly about rivers?
Q) Explain the difference between plains and plateaus?
Q) What are landforms and expalin briefly in detail?
★The land covering the Earth's surface is not uniform.At some places it rises high,while at other places it is flat.The different features that make up the Earth's surface are called Landforms.
★There are four main landforms.They are
- Mountains and hills are the rocky masses of land that rise higher than the surroundings. The mountains have very steep slopes and high peaks.Hills are smaller and lower
- Mountains usually occur in long rows called mountain ranges. For example, Himalayas in the northern India.
- Mount Everest is the highest mountain peak in the world. It is located in the Himalayas in Nepal.
Types of mountains:-
There are three types of mountains Fold mountains, volcanic mountains and block mountains.
A) Fold mountains:-
- These are formed when two large land masses push against each other.
- Eg. Alps in Europe,The Rocky in North America,The Himalayas in India .
B) Volcanic mountains:-
- These are formed by the molten rock from deep inside the Earth rises to surface, forming a volcano.
- Eg. Mount Fuji in Japan,Mount Vesuvius in Italy.
C) Block mountains:-
- These are formed by splitting and sliding of large blocks of land.
- Eg:- Black forest mountains in Germany,The Sierra Nevada in USA.
- The lowland between hills or mountains is called a Valley. It is formed by glaciers or rivers wearing away rocks on mountains. Some valleys have rivers flowing through them.
- Eg. Brahmaputra Valley,Kashmir valley
- Mountains have low, narrow, gaps called passes.People cross the mountains through these passes.
- Eg. Khyber Pass in the Himalayas connects Afghanistan and Pakistan.
- Plains are flat lands with gentle slopes. Rivers flowing from the mountains bring fertile soil to the plains. So the crops grow well here. Plains are the thickly populated area in the world.
- Eg. Prairies of USA,Northern plains of India produce large amounts of wheat and other grains.
- A land that is higher than the surroundings looks like a table is called plateau.
- Eg. Deccan plateau in south India.
- The Tibetan plateau in the Himalayas is the highest plateau in the world. It is also known as "roof of the world".
- Columbia and Colarado plateaus are in USA
- Deserts are large,extremely dry areas of land with little rainfall and very few plants. Eg. Sahara desert in North Africa, it is the biggest desert in the world.
- In the deserts during summers days are hot and nights are cool and during winter days are cool and nights are very cold
- Other deserts are Kalahari desert in southern Africa,Atacama desert in South America,Thar desert in India.
A place where land meets the sea is called a coast. Some coasts are sandy and others are rocky.
- A land that is surrounded by water on three sides is called peninsula.Southern part of India is a peninsula
- Arabian peninsula is the largest in the world
- Sinai Peninsula is in Egypt
An island is land surrounded on all the sides of water. Eg. Sri Lanka,Andaman and Nicobar in India,Robben island in South Africa
- Tip of a peninsula is called a cape
- Southern most tip of the Indian peninsula is Cape Comorin.
- A strait is a narrow passage of water connecting two seas or two large areas of water.Palk Strait lies between India and SriLanka.
The water surrounded on three sides by land is called Bay. Eg. The Bay of Bengal along the east coast of India,San Francisco,California
- Long streams of water are called rivers.
- Rivers in North India are formed by melting of snow in glaciers.They have water throughout the year and are called Perennial rivers
- Rivers in South India are formed by rainwater. They do not have water throughout the year and are called Seasonal Rivers
- Rivers ultimately flow into the sea
- Nile in Egypt is the longest river in the world
- Other important rivers are Mississippi in the USA,Congo in Africa and Ganga in India
- In history we find that great civilisations have developed along rivers as the soil is richest here and rivers provide water for drinking,domestic and agriculture purpose
Several smaller rivers join the main river. They are called tributaries.
River carries lot of sediment and slow down.Before entering the sea, the river breaks up into channels. They are called distributaries.
Sometimes the distributaries spread out like triangle before falling into the sea. Such a region is called a delta.
Delta made by Brahmaputra and Ganga are the largest in the world