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Class IV - Science: Our food - our health
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) On which leaves we eat our food?
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Q) Why do we need Energy ?
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Q) Food contains which type of substances?
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Q) What is the meaning of word orugulu?
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Q) Write the other name of Poor man's fridge?
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Q) Explain the Food?
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Q) Which prepare their own food and store in their special organs as fruits and seeds?
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Q) The products which can be made from milk are called as which products?
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Q) Milk, eggs,poultry, meat, honey are the examples of which food products?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) What is balanced diet ?
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Q) What are important 5 nutrients are?
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Q) Explain about preservation of food ?
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Q) Explain about Nutrients ?
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Q) Write about Mid day meals?
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Q) Write a short note on Picnic?
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Q) Write a short note on Wastage of food?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Explain about Mid day meals ?
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Q) Write about Healthy food habits ?
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Q) Explain about Wastage of food ?
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Q) Explain about Wastage of food at home ?
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Q) Explain indetail about preservation of meals?
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Q) Explain the Nutrients?
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Q) Explain the Picnic?
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Q) Explain the Mid day meals?
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Q) Explain the Let us prepare the Janata fridge?
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Q) Explain the Preservation of food?
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Q) Explain the Healthy food habits?
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Food

Introduction
Food
  • Energy is required to do work.
  • Food gives us energy to do all the work.
  • Food helps our body to grow, repair damaged tissues and also keeps us healthy.
  • Food contains useful substances called Nutrients.

Nutrients:

Useful substance present in our food are called Nutrients.

Food contains a variety of nutrients.The substances that are needed by our body for good health and growth are called Nutrients

Important 5 Nutrients are.

  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fat
  • Vitamins & Minerals
  • Roughage
  • Water
Balanced diet:

A diet which contains all the nutrients, roughage and water in the correct amount required for good health and proper functioning of the body is Balanced Diet.


Picnic
ts_picnic
  • Fawad, Bipin, Veena and Deepika are studying in fifth class. Their families went out for picnic one day. They opted for an open space with trees on the banks of their village tank, as the picnic spot.
  • The children and the elders enjoyed the picnic.They spoke to each other and played different games. They fetched dry grass and fire wood for cooking. They helped each other and shared things. They cooked a variety of food items.
  • All of them sat along the circumference of a large a circle for lunch as it was lunch time. Children arranged the leaf plates. Some people used freshly picked leaves as plate.
  • Hot cooked food was served along with the different items brought from their houses. Fawad brought Jowar roti's, Veena brought chakki and sweets,Bipin got parboiled horse gram, red gram and bengal grams, Deepika shared the porridge she brought.
  • All of them shared their food items and ate heartily. They spent the day happily. For picnics, there is really no need of occasion at all. People just decide and go on a picnic for fun.

  • Mid day meals
    Mid day meals
    Mid day meals
  • Lunch bell rang in the school. All the children started washing their hands and plates at the tap. They stood in a queue for taking mid day meals. Some children got lunch from home and all of them sat in a line and had their meals.
  • Today they served khichidi and sambar in mid day meals. There is a different menu every day for the mid day meals. Eating together helps the children to develop friendship with other students.
  • They share their food with each other and know the different food habits of each other apart from likes and dislikes of others. Some children eat rice and pickle only.
  • Some children do not eat properly. This is not a good practice.Some children do not get enough food at their home and they come to school without eating. As a result, for children like these serving mid day meals has become a must.
  • Many children in our country do not get enough food to eat. There are still many others who do not go to schools. The children who do not get sufficient food are not healthy, they even do not show interest in studies.
  • Hence Supreme Court of India has ordered that nutritional food be served to all children in schools.From then onwards Govt of India has been serving midday meals to all children in government schools.
  • Healthy food habits
    • There are many disadvantages of wasting food. What happens if we eat stale food? Why does the food get stale? How does the food gets contaminated / spoiled?
    • Food gives us energy and helps us to stay healthy. Hence we should take proper care and measures to keep food safe.

    • chat bandi
      Chat Bandar
      ts_fly.jpg
      Fly on Food Items
    • The food items sold on the road side are not covered properly.
    • Dust, germs,flies and other harmful insects sit on the food and contaminate them.The harmful germs and micro organisms stick to the body of the flies.They sit on dirt and discharge the same on the food.
    • This contaminates the food we eat and is harmful to our health.
    • Some hotels and road side food vendors use the same oil again and again which is not good for health. If oil is heated repeatedly it leads to cancer.
    • So,we should not eat this food. We should not reuse the oil which is already used. We should always eat fresh and hot food. We should always prefer to eat the food prepared at home.
    • We should eat clean food. If we eat clean food with dirty hands we may fall sick. Hence good food habits are must for every one.
    • Every one should follow the good food habits as listed above. If you are not following them everyday, then follow them compulsorily from today, without fail.
    • Microorganisms and germs grow on the food items and spoil them. These harmful germs make the food poisonous. If we eat this type of poisonous food,
    • we fall sick. Care must be taken to keep food safe from dust and harmful germs.We should always eat fresh food while it is hot. We should not buy or cook excess food and waste.
    • Cook wisely, sufficient food needed and do not waste and spoil the food.
    • Preservation of food
    • All food items are not available to us throughout the year. We preserve them for a long period without getting them spoil like Pickles, chutneys, jams, vadiyalu etc are preserved for many days.
    • Using extra salt and drying them before storing helps in preserving them.
    • Vegetables, meat, fish are mixed with salt and then dried in hot sun. These are used as food whenever we want to eat.
    • "orugulu" means sun dried vegetables in Telugu. However pickels are not good for health.

    • Let us prepare the Janata fridge
    • Take two different sizes of earthen or cement flower pots. See that one pot get's fixed to another. Care must be taken to have space of three to four centi meters between them.
    • Fill the large earthen pot with a thick layer of sand for about two to three centimeters. Fix the small earthen pot into it. Now fill the empty space between the pots with sand, sprinkle water on the sand in order to make it wet.
    • Keep the fruits and vegetables in the inner pot.
    • Cover it with wet gunny bag or a thick cotton cloth. Sprinkle water for 3-4 times per day. Fruits and vegetables remain fresh and unspoilt.
    • This is called "Janata Fridge" or "Poor man's fridge" as poor people cannot afford to buy expensive Refrigerators. They can prepare this at low cost as it is very useful for them.

    • fridge
      fridge
    • Observe the above picture
    • Food materials are stored in different ways. Generally, we preserve food items in cool places or refrigerators (fridge). Storing in a fridge is expensive.
    • FIt consumes electricity. Care should be taken to save electricity while using refrigerators.We should not open the fridge often as shown in the figure. we should close the door immediately after use.
    • While buying a fridge, see that a 5 star power saving symbol is marked on it.This 5 star fridge will consume less electricity and thus save power.
    • Wastage of food
      wastage
      Wastage
    • As shown in the picture food is wasted a lot on occasions like weddings,parties and function.
    • On occasions like weddings, festival and fairs eating food together is common.The benefits of eating together are that new relationships develops among the people.
    • As people meet after a long time they share their feelings and happy moments with each other, the bond of love becomes stronger between them.
    • On occasion like marriages and parties many special dishes are cooked and served. Some hosts prepare and serve a large number of dishes and this is much more than required for all the guests.
    • So, we can see a lot of left over food and wastage of food on these occasion. While washing hands drinking water is also wasted.
    • Plastic plates and tumblers are being used for picnics and functions. Though in minute quantity, some plastic enters into our body, which is very harmful for us.
    • The plastic takes some lakhs of years to mix up with soil and thus adds to soil pollution. They even block the micro organisms which make soil fertile.
    • The plastic glasses and plates when burnt release harmful gases into the atmosphere and thus cause air pollution.
    • Leaves of Butea(moduga) and banyan tree are used as plates. Since ancient times we have been using leaf plates for eating.
    • They mix up with soil in less time and easily. Thus they protect our environment. Plastic plates are harmful to health and also lead to soil pollution.
    • leaf
      Eating on leaves
      Wastage of food at home
    • Is food wasted at home? Yes, If excess food is cooked then it gets wasted. Left over food is thrown as waste.
    • Some people spill the food while eating and some waste the food without eating completely.Food grains like rice, wheat, pulses like grams and oilseeds like ground nut are attacked by insects and fungi, causing decay and damage to them.
    • Hence to avoid this, neem leaves are placed in the storage bags and huge bins. Rats also spoil the stored food grains. Ants make the sugar and jaggery un usable.
    • Have you ever felt bad while throwing away food and spoilt food grains? If yes? why did you feel so?Do you know how do we get the food we eat?
    • Observe the pictures given below. We get rice from paddy. Observe the people who work for us in obtaining rice from paddy.

    ts_AgriculturalTools
    The agricultural tools
    ts_Watering_Crops.jpg
    Watering the crops
    ts_Harvesting.jpg
    Harvesting the crop and storing


    ts_Selling.jpg
    Selling the crop
    ts_buying.JPG
    Buying the food grains
    ts_eating
    Eating the food

    • The food we eat is produced (obtained) with lot of efforts and labour of different people(artisans) like farmers, agriculturalists, agricultural labourers, blacksmiths,carpenters etc.
    • With all the combined effort of different artisans we get fruits,vegetables and other food materials to our houses. Farmers till the soil, sow the seeds, harvest the crops and transport them to the market.
    • From the market to the shops and from the shops to our home. After knowing the hard work and labour behind the process of producing food one should not waste the food.
    • Use the food wisely and completely. Care must be taken in storing the grains as insects and ants may spoil them. We must follow safe and protective practices to protect food from rats and rodents.
    • Cooking excess food, throwing left over food, should be avoided.
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