- We see many plants and trees around us. We delight at their sight.
- Plants and animals co-exist on earth with human beings.
- Some of the plants are small, while some are big. Some others are very big.
- There are different types of plants and trees just like different species of animals.
Herbs (climbers / creepers), shrubs and trees
- Plants like ridge gourd, bitter gourd and Jasmine have very weak stems.
- So, they take the support of the nearby trees and grow or climb on them. These are known as climbers or creepers (herbs).
- Plants like chrysanthemum, chilly and roses grow in bushes.Many branches grow from the base of the stem. Such plants are known as Shrubs.
- Tamarind, Peepal and Mango are very big. Their trunk is tall and strong.We get necessary timber from such plants. They also give us shade. They are called trees.
- We have learned about climbers, shrubs and trees.
Generally plants have roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits. Roots grow below the
The part of a plant that grows underground, gets water from the ground, and holds the plant in place.
As the foundation gives support to a house, the roots also being inside the soil, help the plant to stand erect.
Plants absorb water and nutrients through the roots.
- The part of the plant above the ground is called stem. The stem gives rise to the branches and other parts.
- Stems of all the plants are not similar. Stems of some plants have thorns. In some, the stems are soft.
- Others have rough stems. Some others have a thick bark.
- The stem gives the necessary strength to the plant to stand straight (maintain erect position).
- Leaves prepare food for the plant. Leaves are green in colour due to the presence of a green colour pigment called, 'Chlorophyll'.
- The plants which have more leaves prepare more food.
- Hence, we should not pluck leaves.
- A plant does not grow well if we pluck its leaves.
- Sun gives heat and light energy. This energy is absorbed by the leaves and they make use of it in the preparation of food material.
- The energy that we get from leaves, tubers, seeds, vegetables produced from plants is the energy received from the sun. Man and other animals get the necessary energy by consuming these food products produced by the plants.
The transformation of flowers in - guava, ridge gourd, bitter gourd, beans etc.
- The size of a tree does not correspond to the size of the seed.
- Seeds are small (pulses Banyan) some are big in size (Coconut). Some ground nut seeds have hard shells, while others seeds are soft.
- Palm, coconut, soapnut, cashew nut have only one seed inside them. Palm tree, chikoo have 2 to 3 seeds.
- Capsicum and pumpkin have many seeds. In millets like jowar, maize and ragi seeds are borne on the spike.
- Many seeds are found in custard apple and pomegranate. Thus, we can call the spike of a maize as a fruit, like pomegranate.
Seeds germinate into new plants.
Air, water and sun light are essential for the germination of seed. You have learnt about the germination of seeds. Rice is our staple food. We get rice from paddy. We eat the cooked rice.
- Seeds germinate when they are sown in a fertile soil.
- Dead bodies of the animals, leaves shed by different trees and excreta of animals, are decomposed by the micro - organisms (decomposers) which make the soil fertile.
- Some animals dig burrows in the soil and live in them. They make the soil porous and fertile. Earth worm is known as the 'farmer's friend'.
- Once a plant is planted, it remains stationary in one place. But its seeds reach far off places.
- The baby plant grows in a distant place. The seeds are carried by the wind to distant places and the seeds germinate there into a new plant. Example : Asclepaediacea plant family (Zilledu).
- When the cattle goats and sheep graze, the seeds get stuck in their hair and are carried and dropped by them in different places.There, they grow into new plants. Example - observe the seeds of palleru, telu kondi kaya.
- When we sit on the grass, its seeds stick to our clothes. When we move about, they fall on the ground and grow. Have you ever seen the seeds and fruits stuck to the hair of the animals.
- When the fruits of some plants get dried, they break open and disperse their seeds. What will happen if the seeds do not get dispersed by wind, water, animals and also human beings and remain in the same place? Hence, we see a variety of plants in different regions.
- In some places, fruits and seeds are carried away by water. While floating in water, they break open and settle in the soil where they are being left off by the water. There, they grow into new plants.
- A nursery is a place where a wide variety of plants are grown. Plants are grown and sold in a nursery.
- The officials of the forest department also grow the plants like neem, teak, daris (Kanuga), in the nursery. They supply these plants for the social welfare of people.
- It is significant to note that Kadiam nurseries of A.P. state supply a variety of plants all over the country.
- These nurseries are spread in nearly 5 thousands acres of land with 700 of them growing various flowers, plants of fruits, decorative plants and medicinal plants.
- We can see thousands of varieties of plants in these nurseries. Desert plants like cactus or bonsai grown in a tinypot are also available here. Plants are grown by sprinkling seeds.
- Plants are grown in controlled climatic conditions using shed nets and polyhouses. Growing diverse varieties of plants found in deserts, polar regions and moist regions together in one place it self,proves to be a model of Bio-diversity.
- It is necessary to plant the trees as the pollution is increasing day by day. Thus Kadium nurseries are playing a vital role in protecting the environment. We should visit such nurseries without fail.