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Class IV - Science: Our village - our tanks





Introduction

Introduction
  • "My name is Varalakshmi. We belong to an agricultural family. We practice agriculture since the time of our ancestors. Nagulacheruvu a tank is the main source of water for our agriculture. Since two years Nagulacheruvu didn't possess enough water, hence, we had to go for rainfed crops."
  • "This year also the rainfall was not enough in the begining. But for the last three days there was heavy rainfall which is favourable for sowing."
  • "I want to go to Nagulacheruvu when the rain stops. But on the way to Nagalacheruvu there is a small pond called Laddhamadugu which is overflowing,making it difficult to cross."
  • "Children! in rainy season the flow of water in small canals is very rapid. You should never get into such canals, otherwise you will be carried away by the rushing water."
  • "In the afternoon the rainfall was not heavy. It was only drizzling and we were able to see the sun. We saw a rainbow in the sky."
  • ts_nagal
    Nagulacheruvu
  • "Hurriedly I reached Nagulacheruvu.As soon as I reached there, I saw Hanmaiah,Satyappa, Ramgopal,Nayak, Pullappa, and Mannepu Reddy. Just then Gouri and Annapurna also reached there.Flood water was flowing into the tank. The tank became full and were overflowing."
  • "We all discussed about the tanks being filled with water and overflowing. The seeds to be sown, strength of the embankments etc. We were all happy because we could harvest two crops this year."
  • "While I was getting down the embankment I saw Narahari. Narahari knows not only about our village but also villages near by. He has information about all the families, Tanks, crops, temples etc., in our surrounding villages. He always talks about the history of tank."
History of Nagulacheruvu

History of Nagulacheruvu
  • "My name is Narahari. We have some land near Nagulacheruvu. We practice agriculture, but our main occupation is to narrate the history of Nagulacheruvu.This is being practiced since the time of our ancestors. I know very well about Nagulacheruvu. My father and grand father also told many stories about this tank.
  • I remember a lot of things about the tank when I see it with full of water."Prior to Nagulacheruvu there used to be a small pond in that place. That pond used to get filled up even during small rains. The water from this pond was used by the farmers who have land near the pond. A farmer named Mallikarjun met the tahsildar to take necessary action, so that the water could be used by all farmers.
  • Engineer Abdulbari surveyed the region near the pond and planned to convert the pond into tank.
  • Construction of a tank Construction of the tank has, started. Everybody in the village was involved. It was a collective programme.First they identified the source of the flood water.
  • They dug canals from the regions from where the water was flooding. Then they started constructing bunds. They carried mud in bullock-carts from near by villages.They build the bund with stones from the inside. They brought stones from the nearby hills. They built two outlets from the embankment, on both the sides.
  • The outlet was constructed by Abdulbari. A scale in white paint was drawn to know the level of water. It helps to drain the excess water by letting it out. In the beginning people used to be surprised when the water was released. When a gate is opened water flows out into the canals. When it is closed water stops flowing.
  • Some tanks are connected with other tanks with the help of canals. Water flows from one tank to another in rainy season. Bukkapatnam, Dharamavaram tanks in Ananthapur district are of this type. In the same way canals are dug to fill the tanks with river water. Such tanks are found in Krishna, west and east Godavari Districts.
  • After completion of building the outlets, care was taken to prevent soil erosion.Soil erosion takes place when the water flows from the outlets. For this, large stones were layed in the path of the water. This work was taken up by the masons in our village. At the time of construction everybody ate their lunch sitting together.They discussed about the division of labour. They dug canals and built, them with cement and sand. These canals helps the water to flow into the fields.
  • "There was sufficient rainfall in the year in which we constructed the tank.Farmers sowed paddy crop. The harvest was very good. There was a drastic change in the lives of the farmers. Our family also came out of economic problems."
  • Big tanks of our state
  • Like Nagulacheruvu we have many tanks in the state. Let us know about our state.
  • Ramappa tank
  • In warangal district there is Ramappa tank near Ramappa temple. It was built during the 13th century,with an area of 24sq.km. This tank is the only source of water for agriculture for the villages near by. There are many hills and forests around this tank.Ramappa temple is known for its architecture.
  • Ramappa
    Ramappa tank
    Panagal tank
  • Panagal tank is in Nalgonda district. It is also called as Udaya Samudram, located 3 k.m away from Nalgonda town. It was built by Kakathiya King Prathaparudra. This tank is the source of irrigation facilities for thousands of acres. In the bank of Panagal tank, the famous Chaya Someshwara Swamy temple is located.
  • Panagal tank
    Panagal tank
    Hussain Sagar tank
  • Hussainsagar is located in Hyderabad. It is one of the biggest tanks. This was built by Hazrath Hussain Sha wali in 1562. The bund of this tank was made into a road in 1946. This bund joins the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The area of this tank was 5.7sq.km but has decreased now. Filled with Eichhornia plants, waste thrown by visitors, inflow of drainage water, industrial effluents etc.,another important and major cause of pollution of this tank is immersion of 'Ganesha idols'. The depth of the tank was 32 feet but it got silted to a large extent. Now the government is trying to depollute the tank.
  • Hussain Sagar tank
    Hussain Sagar tank
    Osman Sagar tank
  • Another tank in Hyderabad is 'Osman Sagar'.It was built on the sub river of Musi. It is also known as 'Gandipet tank'. To this day the water of this tank is being used for drinking by the people of Hyderabad.
  • Osman Sagar tank
    Osman Sagar tank
  • Relation between the farmers and the tanks We know that the tanks have many advantages. Chennaiah had a close attachment with Nagulacheruvu. Let us know what he say about the tank.
  • "My name is Chennaiah. I had a great attachment to Nagulacheruvu. My father taught me swimming in this tank every sunday. I used to wash my clothes near the tank along with my friends.
  • I used to catch fish, crabs etc., with my friends. I was scared to see big frogs and water snakes. Some times we find tortoises. We used to bring them home and leave them in small tubs and took care of them.We enjoyed seeing the birds flying on the water. My son prepared Ganesh idols with mud brought from the tank. He did this on his teacher's advice. I also prepared some idols using mud.
  • Advantages of tanks
  • Our field is near to the tank - every day I used to go to Nagulacheruvu and open the outlet. This was my daily routine. Every person in our village has a special attachment with Nagulacheruvu. Everyone is dependent on that tank one way or the other.
  • Many people have farms near Nagulacheruvu. This is the only source of water for agriculture. When the tank is full it is like a feast to farmers and agricutural labourers. Children of our village learn to swim in this tank. People wash clothes and take up fishing. Now-a-days small fishes are let in to the tank for breeding.Fibre plants like Amaranthus, Jute, flax etc., are soaked in water to make ropes.
  • Three years ago borewells were drilled and water tanks were constructed to supply water to every house. To this day Nagulacheruvu is the only source of drinking water for birds and animals.
  • When the tank is full the level of water in the wells, tubewells, check dams rise.When the level of water in the tank decreases people take up fishing, some farmers grow water melon, musk melon and cucumbers.
  • Farmers take up desiltation during summer.This mud is used in their fields because it is very fertile. Desilting helps in increasing the capacity of the tank.
Tanks pollution and Management of tanks

Tanks-pollution
  • You have learnt the advantages of tanks! Look at the following picture.
  • ts_pollution
    Pollution
  • Tank is getting polluted in different ways. The people of the village wash their clothes in the tanks. Many people don't have toilets and use tanks for the purpose,they wash cattle etc. People immerse Ganesha idols in the tank every year.
  • The colours used are very poisonous chemicals which pollute water in the tank due to which fishes are dying. The sewage water from the houses are let into the tank. The people who visit tank in the evenings for relaxation throw eatables and empty covers into the tank.
  • Such activities make the water polluted. Chemical effluents from medicine manufacturing factories make the underground water and tank water polluted. Once the water of this tank was used for drinking, but now it is fully polluted.
  • Now-a-days some programmes are being taken up to control water pollution.Last year some people planned to establish an industry near the tank but the people of the village stood against the decision and won.
  • There used to be a tank in our uncle's village. In which I used to swim in my childhood. But we cannot see that tank today, it is occupied by new houses,nobody can imagine that there used to be a tank in that place earlier.
  • Tanks we
  • I sleep on tank bund at nights during harvest season. To eat my food under the shade of trees on the bund has became a habit for me. When the tank is full people perform 'Maisamma' festival and let the water out to fields.
  • For this celebration all the people of our village donate rice, money etc., Everybody dines on the bund and releases the water to the fields.During ' Bathukamma' festival they leave Bathukamma's into the tank, it is very beautiful to look at.
  • I always like to watch sunrise and sunset standing on the bund.The weather is cool near the tanks. Farmers rest under the shade of trees. Birds flying on the bunds from the fields at night and fragrance from the gardens make the village life very beautiful.
  • Blooming lotus, insects flying on water, fish eating insects, cranes hunting for fish are the scenes worth watching.Drying of tanks - Drought
  • Look at the following picture
    ts_drough
    Drought
  • Due to environmental pollution, felling of trees, de-forestation day-by-day there is reduction in greenary. Heat from the sun is falling on the earth directly rather than on trees. This is leading to warming of earth's atmosphere.
  • This leads to decrease in rainfall, ultimately leading to drought in some areas. Due to failure of rains farmers are drilling borewells and drawing underground water from very deep layers.This act is causing great damage to the environment.
  • Many people who live in villages are travelling long distances to fetch water. Most of them are depending on the tankers supplied by the government.
  • Why this situation arises? Is this one not an important problem? for this who has to take, what action?
  • Tank management / Management of tanks
  • Look at the picture given. This is a picture of a tank. You can see Eichhornia plants, and Algae in this tank.
  • Why this tank is becoming polluted? Who should take care of them? What happens if they are not taken care of? Our future is in protecting of our tanks.
  • What is Yakub saying about the management of tanks?"My name is Yakub. We have our fields near Nagulacheruvu.
  • Government has formed 'agricultural water management societies' for the development of tanks. In our village our farmers elected me as the president.
  • Every year our society takes up repairs of canals, embankments, outlets etc. De-siltation is taken up in summer and that mud is spread in fields.
  • Check the pollution in bunds, because the tank is the only source of our livelihood.
  • Udaipur - which is in the state of Rajasthan is called the city of lakes. Udaipur has many lakes, hence the name has come. In ancient period these lakes were constructed to use the water for drinking and agricultural purposes.
  • Among all the lakes in Udaipur 'Pichola' lake was an important one. It was built in 1362 by Banjaras. Later on, it was developed by king Udai Singh. All the places in Udaipur were built on the banks of these lakes.
  • Among them 'Jagnivas' and 'City palace' are important.
  • ts_udaypur
    Udaipur
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