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Class IV - Science: Indian history & culture

Ancient history

History defination
  • Family history includes the members in the family, reputation of the family, place of their living, types of houses they lived in,types of clothes used, type of food they eat and many other things.
  • In a similar way, every village has a history. How the village got its name and what are all the special features that village has,how was that village in the past,we come to know about such things from our elders. But the History tells you about the things that happened in the past.
Human Evolution
Introduction to Human Evolution
  • Ancient history tells how the primitive man evolved (changed gradually).Observe in the picture how man evolved. Primitive man led the life of a wanderer.They used to live in caves and on trees. They hunted animals and ate raw flesh. They gradually started cooking food after the discovery of fire. They began agriculture and reared animals. They prepared earthen bowls and cooked food. They used it to store things, and also decorated them beautifully. They reached the stage of producing food from the stage of collecting food. They discovered wheel which led to many changes in the human life.
Indian history

Indian history introduction
  • Just like a family and a village, India has its own history. The events which led to the changes in the lifestyle of people can be known from history.
  • Archeology department carries out excavations to know about our past.Sir John Marshall who belonged to Britain carried out excavations near river Indus in 1922. Due to this, Harappan civilization came to light.Indus valley civilization was an urban civilization, cities were built in a planned manner. There was an organised construction of big buildings and streets. Agriculture was the main occupation of the Harappan people.Wheat, paddy and barley were the important crops. They used to make different articles using metals like copper, bronze lead and aluminium.They traded with West Asia and Egypt. Their important port was "Lothal". They worshipped Lord Shiva and Mother Earth. They had a pictorial script.
  • Salarjung Musium
    Salarjung Musium
    The Museums defination
  • The museums are sources of information of our traditions,culture and also our heritage. We can also know about our past through books,old manuscripts etc.,
  • Culture
  • The dress we wear, the language we speak, our festivals, procession, crops that we grow, our food, games, songs all of these are explains what we care. These are all symbols of our culture. If we visit new place their language, food habbits not similar to us. That is their culture.Living styles, thoughts, works, arts, literature, entertainment, etc., reflects our culture. Respect the elders, helping other. Thanks giving to helpers, prayers and worship of god etc., are also elements of culture.In our Indian culture we worship trees, birds, animals, air, winter and fire respect the nature. We believe that all living beings are equal our culture gives importance to biodiversity our culture has special recognition and respect in the world.Greatest sculpture of temples, buildings, our music, dance, paintings, Puranas,Ithihasas are all our cultural heritage.Hence everyone should protect their culture for our future generations.
Monuments reflecting Indian history
  • There are many ancient scriptures, temples, monuments, stupas, forts which reflect our country's history. We can understand our history by visiting and collecting the details. Some of the monuments related to our country's history is given below.
  • Saranath Stupa
  • Saranath stupa was built by king Ashoka. Dome shaped construction made of bricks and stones is called a Stupa.One such Stupa is in Saranath near Varanasi in Uttarpradesh.This is a very ancient monument.
  • Saranath Stupa
    Saranath Stupa
    Askoka's Pillar
  • It is made up of sand stone. The stone pillars were excavated from 'Chunar' near Varanasi. It is a standing stone pillar, four lions are engraved on this. The four lions represent our national emblem. Indian currency has the national emblem on it.
  • Askoka's Pillar
    Askoka's Pillar
    Telangana Martyr Statue
  • The Statue is infornt of our state assemble. The memorial statue of the people who laid down their lives during 1969 Telangana movement. It is a Symbolic structure which stands for the rememberance the spirit of the Telangana movement for ever.
  • Telangana Martyr Statue
    Telangana Martyr Statue
    Qutub Minar
  • Qutub Minar is 225 meters high. It is situated in our country's capital city, Delhi. It's construction was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by Iltutmish.
  • Qutub Minar
    Qutub Minar
    Red Fort
  • Red fort is in our country's capital Delhi. National flag is hoisted on it on days of national importance.It is built by Red stone. It's architecture is of Persian and Indian style.
  • Red fort
    Red fort
  • Charminar is in the city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. It is 58 meters high, there are four minarets on it. It was constructed in the year 1591.
  • Charminar
    Thousand pillar temple
  • This is in Warangal city of our state. This belongs to the Kakatiya period. This is Lord Shiva's temple with beautiful sculptures.
  • Thousand pillar temple
    Thousand pillar temple
  • Chandragupta founded the Mauryan empire. Ashoka was his grandson. Ashoka was one of the great rulers. He took to Buddhism after the Kalinga war. He preached non violence and worked for the spread of Buddhism. Dharmachakra in the centre of our natioanl flag is taken from the Saranath stupa built by Ashoka.
  • Mauryas
    Nizam Dynasty
  • Hyderabad was ruled by Nizam Dynasty. They were Muslims they speak Deccani urdu. But most of the people of Hyderabad state belongs to Hindus. Telugu, Kannada and Marati were their langauages. Meer Usman Ali Khan, the last ruler of Nizams developed agriculture industries and also established educational institutions by the influence of the British. During his ruler major projects as Nizam Sagar and Ali Sagar were constructed Usman Sagar project on Moosi river to provide drinking water facility for the people of Hyderabad.
  • Nizam Dynasty
    Nizam Dynasty
  • Chandragupta established Gupta empire in 320B.c. Chandragupta Vikramaditya was the most popular in the Gupta dynasty. There were nine poets called Navaratnas in his court. Kalidasa was the greatest among them. World famous Ellora caves belong to Gupta period. Sculptures and paintings were developed during their period.
  • Guptas
    Vijayanagara Kings
  • Sri Krishna Devaraya was the most famous among Vijayanagara kings. He ruled Vijayanagara kingdom from 1509 to 1529. There were eight poets called as "Ashtadiggajas" in his court. He himself was a poet. He wrote 'Amuktamalyada'. He is the one who said that Telugu is the best among our country's languages.
  • Vijayanagara Kings
    Sri Krishna Devaraya
  • Ganapatideva and his daughter Rudrama Devi were famous among Kakatiyas. They united telugu speaking people. Warangal fort, thousand pillar temple, Ramappa temple and tanks like Pakala and Ramappa were built during their period.
  • Rudrama Devi
    Rudrama Devi
  • Akbar was the most famousMughal emperor who ruled India. Though he was a muslim, he was tolerant to others religions also. He is great administrator.
  • Marathas
  • Shivaji was a brave man who revolted against Mughals and established the Maratha kingdom. He was a follower of Hinduism but was tolerant towards other religions and earned a good name. Samarth Ramadas was Shivaji's guru. Saint Tukaram was a Great saint of his period.
  • Marathas
    Chatrapati Shivaji
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