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Class IV - Science: Houses - construction - sanitation

Houses construction-sanitation

  • We need house to live in. Villages and towns have different kinds of houses.Look at the houses in the picture given below.
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    Houses - Yesterday and today
  • The present day houses have been subjected to many changes compared to the houses in the past. Where did the people live in the past? Do you know, what kind of houses they lived in?
  • Yadagiri is a mason. He has been costructing houses for the last 20 years.He constructed different kinds of houses in villages and towns. Let us observe some of the houses constructed by Yadagiri. We know that Yadagiri has been constructing hundred of houses for the past 20 years. Let us see what he says about the changes in construction style.
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  • "My parents constructed our house during my childhood.Our house is constructed with mud. My sister and I also helped in constructing the house. We brought the mud, mixed it with water and made plumps. My parents arranged these plumps one on top of the other in rows and constructed the wall. After raising four walls to 6 feet height we made a frame of bamboo sticks on black wooden logs. We covered the frame with palm leaves. Doors and windows were made with neem log by Satyam. They were fixed to the walls. My mother coated the walls and floor with dung and put rangoli. We would white wash the walls during festivals. My mother used to cook on fire wood. Those days, the materials used for construction of houses are available locally. Our house used to be very cool
  • Mud roofs
  • "I became a mason at the age of 18 years. I consturcted roofs with mud in the beginning. Do you know? we constructed the walls also with mud. We used to mix sand and lime in the mortar and then used the mix to build the walls. The walls of the ancient forts were also built with stones and lime."
  • "I build so many buildings with baked bricks and lime these days. These buildings contain kitchen and storeroom for grains. We did the plastering of walls with the mix of sand and lime. The roof was built with teak, maddikarra & vegisa logs and coverd with Bangalore tiles. For flooring stones of Tandur, Shabad were used. We left more empty space around the house. Every house grew neem tree.All the houses would have sitouts in the front. Many people slept out side the houses on cots."
  • What is the use of sit outs infront of the houses?The rich people used to construct buildings with slabs and brick walls. Plastering is done by cement.The roof is layed with cement concrete which contains steel, cement and sand. Many changes have taken place in the construction of houses in the present
  • ts_penku108
  • "I constructed a duplex house recently. The owner is Chakrapani. The area of the site is length 36 feet by breadth 30 feet. The plan was drawn by an architect".
  • duplex house
    Duplex house
  • "We made bed with cement concrete and constructed pillars with steel and concrete. Walls were built using cement bricks. Interesting thing is that the cement bricks floated on water. We used lifts and vibrators to construct the slab. We did cement plastering to the walls and smoothend them with wall care putty. The ceiling of the rooms were done using sheets of plaster of paris this keeps the rooms cool. Flooring was laid using marble stones brought from Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Ceramic tiles were laid in the kitchen and bathrooms."
  • "I didn't have the skill to do all the work alone. Workers with different skills were called for various work like laying of tiles and stones, ceiling painting, fitting pipes etc., the current was generated with solar panels arranged on the roof of the house. Water gets heated using solar panels. The whole plot was used to construct the building. The roof was covered with plastic sheets and filled with mud to grow vegetables and flowers. This is called 'Roof Garden'."
Houses construction-sanitation

Making of bricks
  • Let us know, how a house is constructed!
  • Visit any house that is being constructed near you. Collect the information and write.
  • What type of house is being constructed?
  • How many people are working? What are the various types of work and who are involved is doing them?
  • What are the daily wages? (Ask any three)
  • What different types of material and tools are used for construction?
  • How did they bring the materials?(tractor/lorry/auto/bullock-cart/ rikshaw etc.,)
  • How many bricks and bags of cement is required to construct a room?
  • How much money is spent on the construction of one room?
  • Making of bricks
  • In construction, bricks made with mud are used widely. The bricks which are light, strong and red in colour will have more demand. Do you know how the bricks are made? Let us know the different stages of making bricks.
  • Bricks are made in the following stages
  • Collecting clay
  • Mixing clay with ash
  • Adding water to the mixture and making into a smooth paste by making cattle to walk / tramp on it.
  • Filling the moulds with mud plumps.
  • Drying the bricks for two days under the sun.
  • Arranging the dried bricks in a kiln in layers and blocking them with firewood and husk for 30 days.
  • When the bricks burn and turn red in colour, they will be sold to people.
  • ts_Selling.jpg
    Collecting clay
    Mixing clay with water and ash
    Filling in moulds
    Drying the bricks
    Kiln Arrangement
    Burning in Klin
    Ready for Dispatch

  • In addition to bricks we need stones, teak, cement, concrete, kankar (pieces of Granite), steel, tiles etc: to construct a house. Let us know about them
  • Construction of house - Other materials
  • To construct a house, besides bricks, materials like foundation stones, flooring stones eg: Tandur, Shabad, Khammam are available in different colours in our state.
  • Tandur stones
    Tandur stones
    Rajasthan Marble stones
    Rajasthan Marble
    Shabad stones
    Shabad stones
    Khammam granite
    Khammam granite
    Stone crushing
    Stone crushing
  • Kankar stones are required to prepare concrete mix. For this, crushers are used. Huge rocks will be put in machines and cut into smaller pieces.Workers who do this work live at the place of work.Their children also live with them.
Houses construction-sanitation

Construction of apartments
  • The cost of land in towns is very high.So,apartments with many flats are constructed on smaller sites.Apartments are constructed to accommodate 25 to 30 families. The residence of each family is called a flat. Nowadays, apartments are constructed to accommodate more than 50 families. Do you know what tools and machines are used to construct apartmets? Observe the pictures given below.
  • apartments
  • Generally marbles or tiles are laid on the floors of apartments. These are available in your region. Find out how that material has reached your place? And from where?
  • The important parts of a house are doors, different windows and frames.Usually, people use wood. Nowadays, some are using doors made with iron. In apartments, they make doors with plywood. Glass is used for windows and doors.
  • Houses are constructed keeping in mind heat, rainfall and the materials available. Let us learn about the different types of houses in various regions of our country.
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    Bamboo houses
    Boat houses
    Stone Houses
  • Rain-fall is more in the north-east regions, such as Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland etc., wet weather prevails always.The Britishers started constructing houses here in the year 1826. We find more wooden houses here. Bamboo sticks are used as walls. They are coated with clay mixed with cow dung. The roofs of the houses are slanting, made with sheets. The lower part is constructed on stilts. The passage that allow the rain water to drian off is called stilt.
  • Kashmir has a cooler climate place. Sometimes the temparatures fall to below 00 degree centigrade.Here houses are constructed on mountains.In Srinagar, tourists live in boat houses called 'Donga' on the river Jhelum.
  • Coloured stones are available at Tandur in our state. Stones are very cheap here. So,people construct the walls, slab, flooring evrery thing with stones only. Stone roof!Is it not amazing? Similarly coconut leaves in coastal regions, bamboo in Nallamala Manyam forests are widely used for the construction of houses.
Houses construction-sanitation

Houses - problems
  • We all need house to live in. But most of the people do not have their own houses. There are many poor people in our state. These people live in rent houses or in temporary houses.
  • Poor people live in huts, beside streams, river banks and in open places in towns. Observe a slum area in Hyderabad. Why do people live in slums?
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    Slum area in Hyderabad
    Excretion in open places
  • Many rural villages don't have toilet facilities. Some people, though they have toilets go to open places for excretion.This is a bad habit. Many problems arise due to this. The house flies that sit on the stools, spread harmful bacteria and diseases. When the feaces (stools) is excreted near lakes and streams it mixes with water when it rains. When we drink this water cholera and typhoid attack us. Ring worms spread due to open excretion. Anaemia is caused due to ring worms in the stomach.The food taken is obsorbed by the worms and the person remains weak. Deworming tablets should be taken yearly twice.
  • Complete sanitation to be provided
  • The government is trying to provide toilet facilities to all. It is providing an economic help to all weaker sections to build toilets.
  • How many families are using this facility in your village?
  • Anitabai demanded toilet to stay at her husband's house
    Anitabai receiving cash award
    from the Cental Minister
    Sri Jai Ram Ramesh
  • The woman in the photo is Anitabai. She belongs to Chichowli village in Betul district of Madhya pradesh. She was married to Sivaram of Ratanpur village in the year 2011. She was embarrassed to enter the house of her husband, because, there was no toilet in it. She returned to her village. When questioned, she told, she would enter the house if a toilet is constructed. Discussion started on this matter in the family and in the village. Every one accepted Anitabai's ope nion. Then a toilet was constructed in her mother-in-law's house. On seeing this, all the families in the village constructed toilets in their houses. In this way, Anitabai became the reason for the sanitation movement. The whole country took interest in it. The rural development minister Mr.Jai Ram Ramesh honoured Anitabai with 'Sulabh Sanitation Award' and presented a cheque of Rs.5,00,000.Then the president Mrs.Pratibha Patil andPrime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh also appreciated her.
  • The villages that have 100 percent sanitation facilities and toilet in all the houses will get Nirmal Puraskar. The president of India will present this award.
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    Receiving Nirmal Puraskar
    from the President of India
    Sanitation - a compulsory requirement
  • Health is wealth. Most of the diseases spread through unhygienic conditions. Dirty surroundings is the main enemy of our health. Observe the picture given. What is happening in the picture. What harm results due to this?
  • How is garbage collected at our homes?
  • Observe the garbage collected at your house. What does it comprise of? There is left over food, leaves, peel of fruits, wet garbage, covers, papers etc., Wet trash decays quickly and mixes with mud. We should throw this into compost pit. We can recycle the dry trash. We should give away this to the rag pickers. The municipality in the towns collect wet and dry garbage seperately. You should collect the wet and dry trash seperately and give them to municipal people when they bring the collecting van.
  • We should not burn the garbage in heaps. Air gets polluted due to this. Iron sheets, glasses remain unburnt. This is harmful to the environment.
  • Do you know?
  • Lekh Chand of Chandigarh collected garbage and used it to construct a beautiful'ROCK Garden'.
  • Lekh Chand
    ROCK Garden
  • Removing garbage to make environment clean is very important. Think how can we reduce garbage. We should practise the following three principles to protect the environment.
  • Reducing garbage
  • We should purchase the goods according to requirement and reduce wastage. We should not use plastic glasses, plates,bags and spoons. When we use and throw them away, they become strewn every where. They pollute the atmosphere, and when thrown into water it also get polluted. Due to this fishes and plants die. Instead of plastic, we should use crockery / cutlery made of steel. We can use them for a long time and permanently. No need to throw them away.
  • Re-use
  • Using the repaired goods and re-filled goods reduce the usage of plastic.
  • Re-cycling
  • New things are prepared by re-cycling iron, plastic, glasses paper and electronic goods. We can reduce the garbage by re-cycling.
  • Requirements of a good house
  • Observe the house in the picture. A house looks beautiful when it has plants, is clean and has light and free air.
  • Good House
    Good House
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