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Class IV - Science: Find the way / Directions





Find The Way / Directions

Introduction
  • When children and adults live together in one place it is called a family. Many families, living together in one place form a village.Look at the picture below. This is Ramya's village.

Village

Can we find the directions?
  • Kasturi wants to go to her friend, Kamala's house. She asked Ramya to guide her.
  • Ramya said its to the south of the post office.
  • "The south! What's that?" asked Kasturi. Ramya stood facing the sun,stretched her hands on the either sides and said,"The direction facing the sun is the east, to the back is west, right hand side is south and the left hand side is north. These are the four directions".
  • Observe the picture given below. Kasturi is standing in the middle facing the north.

  • Kasturi

  • You have read about the north, the south, the east and the west. With this, we come to know in which direction, our house, street and village are located. Like wise stand in an open area.
  • When we identify the directions of any area, or building or village, we call them boundaries. With the help of boundaries we can identify any area or a place or an architecture. To know this, you also have to know something else? We call the place/side between any two direction as corner.


  • Four Directions
    Four Directions
    Directions, Corners
    Directions,Corners
How to draw a map?
  • One day the teacher showed some maps in the class.
  • On seeing them Kasturi asked, "How the maps are drawn? How is it possible to show vast places on a small paper?" "To know that, let's draw the map of our class room. Bring metre scale and some match sticks," said the teacher.

Measurements of the classroom
  • Teacher asked them to measure the length and the breadth of the room.
  • Kasturi and her friends measured the wall on the north. Its length was six meters.

  • Scale − 1 meter = 1 match stick

  • To show the northern wall, the teacher asked them to take one match stick for mitre length.
  • Then Kasturi arranged six match sticks on the floor, to the north. Like wise, they measured the wall on the east to be nine meters.
  • Now they arranged the nine match sticks on the floor, attaching in to the earlier line of nine sticks.

  • Usually when we draw maps on the paper the north faces upward (N↑)

  • The rest is measured as six meters on the south and nine meters on the west. The pupils placed the match sticks similarly.
  • Then, they drew a line, along the match sticks, with a chalk. Now, they removed the match sticks. The classroom map is ready!
  • Like this we draw the maps of large areas, on the paper. You have seen, how the pupil have drawn the map of their classroom with match sticks.
  • Now, you discuss with your friends and draw the map of your classroom. Instead of a meter you take it as a centimeter and draw the lines directly without using match sticks on a chart. Hang it in your classroom.

Measurements

Village
  • Do you know what the boundaries are, to a village? Have you ever noticed to which side is the road, the school, the post office, the bus-stop, the houses and the fields in the village?
  • How to identify a particular place in the village? How will you guide yourself, when you have to visit anyone for the first time?
  • Of course, you can! with the help of the eight directions you have learnt. See the map given below. Identify the things and their direction.
Village Map

Mandal
  • Mandal consitutes a group of villages. Population will be around in thousands. In every mandal there will be offices of Mandal Praja Parishad, Tahasildar office, departement of agriculture & electricity, and also a primary health centre and a police station.
  • People of all villages visit the mandal regularly for various work.
  • What is the name of your mandal? How many villages are included in it?
  • Try to know. You have learnt about classroom map and a village map. Likewise there will be a map for the mandals showing all the villages in it.
  • Let us see the map of a mandal. Adilabad district has 52 mandals.
  • This is the map of Luksettipet mandal of Adilabad district.

Luksettipet Mandal Map
District
  • As we have villages in mandal, many mandals are included in a district.
  • In every district there will be a Collectorate Office, Zilla Parishad Office and a District Hospital.
  • People from the villages of all the mandals in the district visit the district head quarters for various work.
  • There are 23 districts in our state. Every district has its map. In that the important places, offices and the institutions of the district are indicated. Below is the map of a district.
  • There are 23 districts in our state. Every district has its map. In that the important places, offices and the institutions of the district are indicated. Below is the map of a district.

  • Nalgonda Map

Our state
  • Telangana is our State. Some villages together form a mandal, mandals together form a district and some districts together form a State.
  • It has 31 districts. Hyderabad is the capital city.
  • People here celebrate various festivals and practice different cultures and traditions.
  • The rivers like Godavari, Krishna, flow through the state.
  • The forests spread through the districts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam, Medak, Mahaboobnagar.
  • We grow crops like paddy, jowar, corn, sugarcane etc.

  • Telangana Map
  • Like our state, every other state has its own map. Locate our state in the map of India.
  • In this unit you have learnt about the maps of a village, the mandal, the district and the state.
  • Use these maps when needed. When we visit a new place, we can locate it on the map.
  • Foreigners who visit India take the help of these maps in locating the places to be visited and their route. Usually maps are displayed at the railway station and the places of tourism.
  • Maps also tells us about the climate, temperature, rainfall etc. related to weather.

  • India Map
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