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Class III - Maths: Using Addition and Subtraction
One Word Answer Questions:
Q) Add the 547 + 878?
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Q) Add the 675 + 987 ?
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Q) Subtract the 565 - 435?
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Q) Subtract the 13 ones - 3 ones?
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Q) Add the 5 tens -8 tens?
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Short Answer Questions:
Q) There are 209 beads on string . If beads broke , how many beads were left on the string?
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Q) In train there are 435 passengers, 400 passengers got down in station. How many passengers are left in the train?
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Q) A shopkeeper had 342 packets of chips . Out of these packets he sold 435 How many packets were left?
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Q) A balloon seller had 435 balloons. He sold 342 ballons . How many ballons were left with him?
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Q) A kite seller had pencils and geethika had 435 pencils . How many kites did he have in all?
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Long Answer Questions:
Q) Shiva bought 343 apples from the market. She had to throw away 129 apples as they were rotten. How amny apples were left with her?
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Q) Mohan had 265 stamps , raja had 435 stamps , and radha had 364 stamps . How amny stamps were there in all?
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Q) Manoj seored 235 and 287 runs in 3 matches how many runs did he score in all?
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Q) In pond there are 412 goldfish and 173 blackfish.How many more goldfish are there in the pond?
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Q) There are 145 oranges, 245 apples , and 123 bananas . How many fruits are there in all?
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Addition

Definition:

" Combining two or more whole numbers to get a total quantity is called addition. "
It is denote by the symbol '+'.

Adding Two Digit And Three Digit Numbers

Let us consider few examples to add two digit and three digit numbers:
Example 1: Add 313 and 56.
Solution: First we write the given numbers in the correct columns of hundreds, tens and ones.

  • Add the ones first. 3 ones + 6 ones = 9 ones, Write 9 in the ones column.
  • Then add the tens.
    1 ten + 5 tens = 6 tens
    Write 6 in the tens column.
  • Now, add the hundreds.
    3 hundreds + 0 hundred = 3 hundreds
    Write 3 in the hundreds column.
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 369.

Example 2: Add 38 + 437 + 25
Solution:

  • Add the ones.
    8 ones + 7 ones + 5 ones = 20 ones
    Write 0 in the ones column and take 2 to the tens column.
  • Add the tens.
    3 tens + 3 tens + 2 tens + 2 tens (carried over) = 10 tens
    Write 0 in the tens column and take 1 to the hundreds column.
  • Add the hundreds.
    0 hundred + 4 hundreds + 0 hundred + 1 hundred (carried over)
    = 5 hundreds.
    Write 5 in the hundreds column.
  • Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 500.

Example 3: Add 676 + 237
Solution:

  • Add the ones
    6 ones + 7 ones = 13 ones = 1 ten + 3 ones
    Write 3 in the ones column and take 1 ten to the tens column
  • Add the tens
    7 tens + 3 tens + 1 ten (carried over) = 11 tens = 10 tens + 1 ten
    = 1 hundred + 1 ten
    Write 1 ten in the tens column and take 1 hundred to the hundreds column
  • Add the hundreds
    6 hundreds + 2 hundreds + 1 hundred (carried over) = 9 hundred.
    Write 9 in the hundreds column.
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 913.
Subtraction

Definition:

" The process of finding the difference between two whole numbers is called subtraction. "
It is denoted by the symbol '-'.

Subtraction Of Numbers Beyond 100

Example 1: Solve 456 - 312.
Solution: First we put the numbers in the correct column before we subtract.

  • First subtract the ones.
    6 ones - 2 ones = 4 ones
    Write 4 in the ones column.
  • Then subtract the tens.
    5 tens - 1 ten = 4 tens.
    Write 4 in the tens column.
  • Now, subtract the hundreds.
    4 hundreds - 3 hundreds = 1 hundred
    Write 1 in the hundreds column.
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 144.

Subtraction With Regrouping

Let us consider few examples of subtraction with regrouping:
Example 1: Solve 143 - 34
Solution:

  • First we subtract the ones.
    3 ones is less than 4 ones, we cannot subtract 4 ones from 3 ones, so we regroup 43 = 4 tens + 3 ones as 3 tens + 13 ones.
    Subtract 4 ones from 13 ones to get 9 ones.
  • Now, subtract the tens.
    3 tens -3 tens = 0 ten
  • Now, subtract the hundreds
    1 hundred - 0 hundred = 1 hundred.
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 109.

Example 2: Solve 341 - 314.
Solution:

  • As we cannot subtract, 4 ones from 1 one, we regroup
    41 = 4 tens + 1 one = 3 tens + 11 ones.
    11 ones - 4 ones = 7 ones.
  • Now, subtract the tens.
    3 tens - 1 ten = 2 tens.
  • Now, subtract the hundreds
    3 hundreds - 3 hundreds = 0 hundred.
  • Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 27.

Think And Subtract

Always subtract the smaller number from the greater number.
Example: Compare the numbers 467 and 842. Subtract the smaller number from the greater number.
Solution: In the numbers 467 and 842, 842 > 467 or,

  • 467 is smaller than 842.
  • So subtract 467 from 842.
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 375.

Subtraction And Addition

Checking Subtraction By Addition

Example: Solve 243 - 162. Also check the answer.
Solution:

  • Subtract the ones first.
    3 ones - 2 ones = 1 one.
  • Then subtract the tens by regrouping.
    14 tens - 6 tens = 8 tens.
  • At last subtract the hundreds.
    1 hundred - 1 hundred = 0 hundred
Addition and subtraction
Answer = 81.

By using the following method, we can check whether the answer is correct or not?
Add the difference of 243 and 162 which is 81, to the number subtracted.

  • Add the ones first
    2 ones + 1 one = 3 ones
  • Add the tens,
    6 tens + 8 tens = 14 tens
    Write 4 in the tens column and take 1 to the hundreds column.
  • Add the hundreds,
    1 hundreds + 0hundred + 1 hundred (carried over) = 2 hundreds.
  • Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 243.

So, our subtraction is done correctly as the sum is equal to the greater number of subtraction.

Subtraction And Addition Facts

Example 1: Add 57 and 88.
Solution:

  • Add the ones first
    7 ones + 8 ones = 15 ones
    15 ones = 1 tens + 5 ones
  • Add the tens.
    5 tens + 8 tens + 1 ten (carried over) = 14
    14 tens = 1 hundred + 4 tens
  • Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 145

    • To check the answer we subtract each of the numbers added one by one, i.e., 57 and 88 from the answer.
    • Subtract 57 from 145.
    • Subtract the ones by regrouping to get 8 in the ones column.
    • Subtract the tens by regrouping to get 8 in the tens column.
    Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 88.


    88 is the other addend

  • Now, subtract 88 from 145.
  • In the same way as before, subtract the ones by regrouping to get 7 in the ones column.
  • Subtract tens by regrouping to get 5 in the tens column.
  • Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 57.


    57 is the other addend

    " When we subtract an addend from the sum of two addends, we get the other addend."

    Example: Add 112 and 43. From the sum subtract the addends one by one.

    Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 155

    Taking the total sum, we subtract one addend from it.

    Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 43

    Taking the total sum, we subtract second addend from it.

    Addition and subtraction
    Answer = 112.

    Similarly,
    If 172 + 13 = 185, then 185 - 172 = 13 and 185 - 13 = 172.
    If 197 + 28 = 225, then 225 - 197 = 28 and 225 - 28 = 197.

    Word Problems

    Example 1: Abdul has 349 balloons, Zaker has 232 balloons, and Hamed has 128 balloons.
    How many balloons are there with three of them?

    Solution:

    • Balloons Abdul has =349
    • Balloons Zaker has =232
    • Balloons Hamed has =128
    • Total number of balloons =709.
    • Addition and subtraction
      Answer = There are 709 total balloons.

    Example 2: There are 149 students in a class, if 72 students are present, how many students are absent.
    Solution:
    • Total number of students =149
    • Number of students present =72
    • Number of students absent =77.
    • Addition and subtraction
      Answer = 77.
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