Multiplication

 Mind Maps

Class III - Maths: Multiplication
Q) Find the product for 9 * 4 = ___?

Q) Fill in the missign number 7 * ___ = 42?

Q) Fill in the blanks and find the product for 9 * __ = 5 * 9 = ___?

Q) Multiply 54 * 5=___?

Q) Find the product for 78 * 5?

Q) Find the missing factor for ___ * 5 = 45

Q) Multiply 92 * 5=___ ?

Q) Multiply by hundreds 15 * 100 = __ and 28 * 100 = __?

Q) What is multiplicand,multiplier and product?

Q) Mutiplying three digit number for 132 by 8?

Q) Write in two ways for 39 tens = ___ hundreds ___ tens = ___ hundreds ___ tens?

Q) A carton holds 36 apples. How many apples are there in 25 such cartons?

Q) There are 12 packets of pencils.each packet has 124 pencils.How many pencils are there in all?

Q) In a cricket stadium the north stand has 23 rows with 16 seats in each row. How many seats are there in the stand?

Q) A shopkeeper buys 46 crates of mangoes at rs 25 per crate. How much money does he pay?

Q) Explain about multiplying by tens. Give example?

Q) Explain about multiplying by 0 or 1.Give example?

Q) Explain about multiplying by hundreds.Give example?

Factors And Products

Multiplication is nothing but adding the same number again and again. The result is called "PRODUCT". the two numbers that are multiplied are called "Factors".

Examples:
4 + 4 + 4 = 12 same as 4 × 3 = 12 4 and 3 are factors, Product is 12

7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = 28 same as 7 × 4 = 28 7 and 4 are factors, Product is 28

3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 21 same as 3 × 7 = 21 3 and 7 are factors, Product is 21

When we multiply 5 by 3, we get 15, Right?
In short, we write 5 × 3 = 15. Here, 5 and 3 are called the Factors and 15 is the Product.

Example
3 × 7 = 21, 3 × 7 is factors and 21 is product.

 Factors Product 3 , 7 21

Example 1:Find the product of 3 and 10.
Solution: 3 × 10 = 30. The product is 30.

Example 2: Find the missing factor:_______ × 6 = 30.
Solution: We can easily find out from the table of 6 that the missing factor is 5. It is so because 5 × 6 = 30.

Example 3:Sekhar and his friends had come to watch a Basketball game in which Sekhar's brother Mahesh was playing.Mahesh has scored 25 points in each of the last 4 games!!. How many points he scored altogether in 4 games?

Solution: Altogether, Mahesh has scored (25+25+25+25) points=100 points.
This is the same as 25 × 4, as multiplication means repeated addition.

 H T O 2 2 5 4 1 0 0

Multiplying 3 Digit Numbers

In three digit number, we know we have ones place, tens place and Hundreds place.
When multiplying:
• Multiply the ones
• Multiply the tens
• Multiply the Hundreds
• Regroup tens and hundreds
• Add them all to get the Product

Example: Multiply 243 by 3.
Solution:
Step 1: multiply the ones.     3 × 3 ones = 9 ones
Step 2: Multiply the tens.     4 × 3 tens = 12 tens.

Regrouping is needed.
12 tens = 1 hundred and 2 tens
Write 2 in the tens column and carry 1 to the hundreds column.
Step 3: Multiply the hundreds.     2 × 3 hundred = 6 hundreds
6 hundreds + 1 hundred (carried over) = 7 hundreds
Write 7 in the hundreds column.

 H T O 21 4 3 3 7 2 9

Multiplying By 0 or 1

Multiplying By 0: When you multiply any number by 0, the answer (product) is always 0. In other words we are saying 0 times of some number which is zero.
Example: 9 × 0 = 0
3125 × 0 = 0
Multiplying By 1: When you multiply any number by 1, the answer is always the number itself. one times of any number is same the number itself.
Example: 7 × 1 = 7

Multiplying By Tens: Any number multiplied by 10 is the number with a zero in the ones place and the number is moved to the left.
Example: 62 × 10 = 620

Look at ten table; same as one table except zeros in ones place! Now we know we are experts in one and ten tables!!

 1 × 10 = 10 2 × 10 = 20 3 × 10 = 30 4 × 10 = 40 5 × 10 = 50 6 × 10 = 60 7 × 10 = 70 8 × 10 = 80 9 × 10 = 90 10 × 10 = 100

To multiply the numbers by 10, we write a zero in the ones place and multiply the other numbers.

What about multiplication by 20,30,40 and so on?
42 × 20 = 840
11 × 80 = 880
15 × 90 = 1350

Multiplying By 100's

Multiplying By Hundreds: To multiply a number by 100, we write two zeros at the end, that is in the tens and ones place and move the digits of the number to be multiplied to the left.

Example: 3 × 100 = 300
5 × 200 = 1000
12 × 300 = 3600

Multiplicand, The Multiplier, And The Product

In a multiplication sum,

1. The number to be multiplied is known as the multiplicand.
2. The number by which the multiplicand is multiplied is called the multiplier.
3. The answer we get is called the product.

Multiplying by a 2-Digit Multiplier

We have learnt multiplying with 1 digit multipliers. Now, we shall learn to multiply by 2 digit multipliers.

Example: In a cricket stadium the north stand has 23 rows with 16 seats in each row. How many seats are there in the stand?

Solution: Here, the multiplier is 16.
We can write 16 as 16 =10+6.
Therefore, multiply 23 by 10 and 6 separately, and add the two products which will give the final product.
23×6=138 and 23×10=230
Therefore, 23×16=23(6+10)=(23×6)+(23×10)=138+230=368.

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